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Phylogeny and evolution of secondary pollen presentation, corolla aestivation patterns, fruit types, and seed number in the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Phylogenetic reconstructions using Bayesian and parsimony analyses of six chloroplast DNA region were performed in order to investigate character evolution and tribal relationships within the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). In the inferred phylogenetic hypotheses, the tribal relationships were mostly well supported, with the subfamily comprised of a crown group of two major sister clades termed the Coffeeae-alliance and Vanguerieae-alliance respectively, and a basal grade comprising Condamineeae, Henriquezieae, Posoquerieae, Retiniphyleae, Sipaneeae, and Steenisia. Five new tribes are here recognized (Airospermeae, Augusteae, Scyphiphoreae, Steenisieae and Trailliaedoxeae). Secondary pollen presentation, corolla aestivation patterns,fruit types, and number of ovules are all characters that have been considered of great importance in the classification of Rubiaceae. Ancestral state reconstructions of these characters using likelihood optimization indicate that secondary pollen presentation is synapomorphic for a clade comprising the Ixoroideae crown group and Retiniphyllum, whereas left-contorted corolla aestivation is synapomorphic for a clade comprising the crown group, Retiniphyllum, and Steenisia. Capsular fruits with numerous seeds are plesiomorphic in Ixoroideae, from which dry or fleshy indehiscent fruits have evolved numerous times independently. Reductions in seed number appears to have occurred within several lineages, none of which show a secondary increase in the number of seeds.

Keyword [en]
character evolution, cpDNA, pollen presentation, Rubiaceae, seed number, systematics
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-48798OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-48798DiVA: diva2:375996
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note
Manuscript part of the first authors Thesis in Systematic Botany.Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2010-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evolution and biodiversity of the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution and biodiversity of the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The phylogenetic relationships within subfamily Ixoroideae of the coffee family are investigated by phylogenetic reconstruction of molecular data, including regions of the chloroplast DNA (matK, ndhF, rbcL, rps16, trnH-psbA, trnS-G, and trnT-F), and the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS). The evolution of morphological characters within the group are inferred, with focus on characters used in classification. Ixoroideae have primarily been characterized by secondary pollen presentation, contorted corolla aestivation, and fleshy fruits. Secondary pollen presentation appears synapomorhic of a clade comprising the Ixoroideae crown group together with Retiniphyllum, whereas contorted corolla aestivation has evolved earlier and is synapomorphic for the crown group, Retiniphyllum, and Steenisia. Capsules likely represent a plesiomorphy from which various dry or fleshy indehiscent fruits have evolved independently in different clades. Reductions in seed number have also occured in many clades, none of which shows a secondary increase in the number of seeds.

Within Ixoroideae, the phylogeny and tribal delimitations of Alberteae and Condamineeae are studied in more detail. The former appears restricted to Alberta, Nematostylis, and Razafimandimbisonia, a new genus described here. The Condamineeae are a diverse tribe largely unresolved in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. Our results support a synonymization of both Calycophylleae and Hippotideae, because these are nested within the Condamineeae. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate that intrapetiolar stipules, poricidal anthers, and protogyny, otherwise uncommon characters in Rubiaceae, all have evolved more than once in the Condamineeae.

The rare genera Jackiopsis, Glionnetia, and Trailliaedoxa previously not included in molecular phylogenetic analyses, are all found nested within the Ixoroideae, and their systematic positions are discussed. The genera Bathysa, Calycophyllum, Elaeagia, and Rustia do not appear monophyletic. Consequently, resurrections of the names Holtonia, Schizocalyx, and Semaphyllanthe, and synonymizations of Phitopis (as Schizocalyx) and Tresanthera (as Rustia) are proposed. Also proposed are five new tribal names for clades that are not associated with any previously described tribes in the phylogenetic hypotheses presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 2010. 28 p.
Keyword
Alberteae, character evolution, classification, Condamineeae, fruit evolution, Ixoroideae, phylogenetics, pollen presentation, Rubiaceae, systematics, taxonomy
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Plant Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-48850 (URN)978-91-7447-198-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-01-14, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-12-22 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2010-12-14Bibliographically approved

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