A new look at sporoderm ontogeny in Persea americana and the hidden side of development
2010 (English)In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 105, no 6, 939-955 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The phenomenon of self-assembly, widespread in both the living and the non-living world, is a key mechanism in sporoderm pattern formation. Observations in developmental palynology appear in a new light if they are regarded as aspects of a sequence of micellar colloidal mesophases at genomically controlled initial parameters. The exine of Persea is reduced to ornamentaion (spines and gemmae with underlying skin-like ectexine); there is no endexine. Development of Persea exine was analysed based on the idea that ornamentation of pollen occurs largely by self-assembly. Flower buds were collected from trees grown in greenhouses over 11 years in order to examine all the main developmental stages, including the very short tetrad period. After fixing, sections were examined using transmission electron microscopy. The locations of future spines are determined by lipid droplets in invaginations of the microspore plasma membrane. The addition of new sporopollenin monomers into these invaginations leads to the appearance of chimeric polymersomes, which, after splitting into two individual assemblies, give rise to both liquid-crystal conical 'skeletons' of spines and spherical micelles. After autopolymerization of sporopollenin, spines emerge around their skeletons, nested into clusters of globules. These clusters and single globules between spines appear on a base of spherical micelles. The intine also develops on the base of micellar mesophases. Colloidal chemistry helps to provide a more general understanding of the processes and explains recurrent features of pollen walls from remote taxa.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 105, no 6, 939-955 p.
Sporoderm development, exine, sporopollenin, self-assembly, micelles, liquid crystals, Persea americana
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-49915DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcq075ISI: 000278225400008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-49915DiVA: diva2:380270
authorCount :32010-12-212010-12-202010-12-21Bibliographically approved