Nebulin: A Study of Protein Repeat Evolution
2010 (English)In: Journal of Molecular Biology, ISSN 0022-2836, E-ISSN 1089-8638, Vol. 402, no 1, 38-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Protein domain repeats are common in proteins that are central to the organization of a cell, in particular in eukaryotes. They are known to evolve through internal tandem duplications. However, the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is incomplete. To shed light on repeat expansion mechanisms, we have studied the evolution of the muscle protein Nebulin, a protein that contains a large number of actin-binding nebulin domains. Nebulin proteins have evolved from an invertebrate precursor containing two nebulin domains. Repeat regions have expanded through duplications of single domains, as well as duplications of a super repeat (SR) consisting of seven nebulins. We show that the SR has evolved independently into large regions in at least three instances: twice in the invertebrate Branchiostoma floridae and once in vertebrates. In-depth analysis reveals several recent tandem duplications in the Nebulin gene. The events involve both single-domain and multidomain SR units or several SR units. There are single events, but frequently the same unit is duplicated multiple times. For instance, an ancestor of human and chimpanzee underwent two tandem duplications. The duplication junction coincides with an Alu transposon, thus suggesting duplication through Alu-mediated homologous recombination. Duplications in the SR region consistently involve multiples of seven domains. However, the exact unit that is duplicated varies both between species and within species. Thus, multiple tandem duplications of the same motif did not create the large Nebulin protein. Finally, analysis of segmental duplications in the human genome reveals that duplications are more common in genes containing domain repeats than in those coding for nonrepeated proteins. In fact, segmental duplications are found three to six times more often in long repeated genes than expected by chance.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 402, no 1, 38-51 p.
protein domain repeat, evolution, repeat duplication, segmental duplication, Nebulin
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Research subject Biochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-50177DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.07.011ISI: 000282074500005PubMedID: 20643138OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-50177DiVA: diva2:381919
authorCount :42010-12-292010-12-212014-11-10Bibliographically approved