The phylogenetic placement and biogeographical origins of the New Zealand stick insects (Phasmatodea)
2010 (English)In: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 35, no 2, 207-225 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
The Lanceocercata are a clade of stick insects (Phasmatodea) that have undergone an impressive evolutionary radiation in Australia, New Caledonia, the Mascarene Islands and areas of the Pacific. Previous research showed that this clade also contained at least two of the nine New Zealand stick insect genera. We have constructed a phylogeny of the Lanceocercata using 2277 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to determine whether all nine New Zealand genera are indeed Lanceocercata and whether the New Zealand fauna is monophyletic. DNA sequence data were obtained from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II and the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA and histone subunit 3. These data were subjected to Bayesian phylogenetic inference under a partitioned model and maximum parsimony. The resulting trees show that all the New Zealand genera are nested within a large New Caledonian radiation. The New Zealand genera do not form a monophyletic group, with the genus Spinotectarchus Salmon forming an independent lineage from the remaining eight genera. We analysed Lanceocercata apomorphies to confirm the molecular placement of the New Zealand genera and to identify characters that confirm the polyphyly of the fauna. Molecular dating analyses under a relaxed clock coupled with a Bayesian extension to dispersal-vicariance analysis was used to reconstruct the biogeographical history for the Lanceocercata. These analyses show that Lanceocercata and their sister group, the Stephanacridini, probably diverged from their South American relatives, the Cladomorphinae, as a result of the separation of Australia, Antarctica and South America. The radiation of the New Caledonian and New Zealand clade began 41.06 million years ago (mya, 29.05-55.40 mya), which corresponds to a period of uplift in New Caledonia. The main New Zealand lineage and Spinotectarchus split from their New Caledonian sister groups 33.72 (23.9-45.62 mya) and 29.9 mya (19.79-41.16 mya) and began to radiate during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, probably in response to a reduction in land area and subsequent uplift in the late Oligocene and early Miocene. We discuss briefly shared host plant patterns between New Zealand and New Caledonia. Because Acrophylla sensu Brock & Hasenpusch is polyphyletic, we have removed Vetilia Stal from synonymy with Acrophylla Gray.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 35, no 2, 207-225 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-50694DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2009.00505.xISI: 000275648300002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-50694DiVA: diva2:382248
authorCount :42010-12-302010-12-302010-12-30Bibliographically approved