Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Devonian rise in atmospheric oxygen correlated to the radiations of terrestrial plants and large predatory fish
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 107, no 42, 17911-17915 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evolution of Earth's biota is intimately linked to the oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere. We use the isotopic composition and concentration of molybdenum (Mo) in sedimentary rocks to explore this relationship. Our results indicate two episodes of global ocean oxygenation. The first coincides with the emergence of the Ediacaran fauna, including large, motile bilaterian animals, ca. 550-560 million year ago (Ma), reinforcing previous geochemical indications that Earth surface oxygenation facilitated this radiation. The second, perhaps larger, oxygenation took place around 400 Ma, well after the initial rise of animals and, therefore, suggesting that early metazoans evolved in a relatively low oxygen environment. This later oxygenation correlates with the diversification of vascular plants, which likely contributed to increased oxygenation through the enhanced burial of organic carbon in sediments. It also correlates with a pronounced radiation of large predatory fish, animals with high oxygen demand. We thereby couple the redox history of the atmosphere and oceans to major events in animal evolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 107, no 42, 17911-17915 p.
Keyword [en]
Phanerozoic, molybdenum, black shale, ocean oxygenation, paleocean redox
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Geochemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-51687DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1011287107ISI: 000283184800015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-51687DiVA: diva2:385750
Note
10Available from: 2011-01-12 Created: 2011-01-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ocean chemistry and the evolution of multicellularity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ocean chemistry and the evolution of multicellularity
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Oxygen has been assumed to be a vital trigger for the evolution of multicellular life forms on Earth, partly based on its power to promote substantial energy flux in cell respiration and partly as biosynthesis of compounds like collagen require oxygen. However, the co-evolution of large life and the Earth’s chemical environment is not well understood at present, and there is particular disagreement in the field about whether the Cambrian explosion of animal life forms was a chemical or biological event. Here, I discuss the evolution of multicellularity, divided in simple or complex forms, in light of the evolution of ocean water column chemistry in both the Proterozoic and the early Paleozoic. Even if the appearance of animals is confined to the Ediacaran, other fossil evidence of complex multicellularity can be argued to occur in the Paleo-, Meso- and Neoproterozic. These finds are, if anything, reason enough to keep searching for early experiments in complex multicellularity. In this search, we may have to expand our toolbox by looking at e.g. trace element aggregations and the isotopic composition of key elements. 

Research over the last couple of years have accentuated that much of the interval between the Ediacaran and the Devonian was dramatic with transitional ocean chemistry at the same time that large forms of animal life experienced dynamic radiation and ecological expansion. Results presented here describe some aspects of this time, including geochemistry from Chengjiang and a mechanism for preserving non-mineralized Cambrian animals that was partly dependent on specific ocean chemistry. Also, geochemical proxies using iron and molybdenum are used to infer a Paleozoic atmosphere with less than 50% of present levels of oxygen. The possibility that the subsequent rise is due to terrestrial plants and linked to the appearance of large predatory fish is discussed. Finally, the first mass extinction in the end-Ordovician is linked to low oxygen concentrations in the water column. It appears that more than oxygen was critical to allow the radiation of large life forms on Earth, but that chemistry and tectonic activity were intimately intertwined to biology, in a dance of permitting and being determined by certain aspects of ecology.

Abstract [sv]

Under lång tid har vi sett atmosfärens syrehalt som avgörande för att stora livsformer skulle börja utvecklas på jorden, delvis eftersom syre är ett energirikt bränsle men också för att det krävs vid sammansättningen av vissa ämnen som djur behöver, till exempel proteinet kollagen. Men, i själva verket, har vi inte lyckats reda ut detaljerna om hur utvecklingen av tidigt, stort liv och miljö satt samman, och om den kambriska explosionen framförallt var en biologisk eller kemiskt händelse. I den här avhandlingen diskuterar jag hur utvecklingen av flercellighet, då uppdelat i enkla och komplexa former, kan vara kopplad till hur havens kemi förändrats både i proterozoikum (2.5-0.5 miljarder år sedan) och paleozoikum (0.5-0 miljarder år sedan. Även om fossil från moderna djur dyker upp runt ediacaran och kambrium, så finns det långt äldre fossil som kan påvisa flercellighet. Dessa fossil ger, om inte annat, anledning att leta vidare efter fler spår av pre-kambrisk flercellighet och kanske kan vi utöka våra sökmetoder till att också tolka ansamlingar, eller isotopsammansättningar, av spårmetaller.

Den kambriska explosinen av djurliv (med startskott för 543 miljoner år sedan) är ett etablerat begrepp, men den senaste årens forskning har satt fokus på att en längre period, från ediacaran till devon, var en dynamisk tid med skiftande havskemi, nya djurarter och experimentella ekologiska nätverk. I den här avhandlingen presenteras några resultat som belyser just denna övergångstid, som geokemin i Chengjiang som beskriver hur havets kemi skiftar från syrefritt till sulfatfritt till syrerikt, och hur djur utan skal och ben kunde bli bevarade genom att flera unika förhållanden sammanföll. En annan studie visar hur molybden använts för att påvisa att atmosfärens syrehalt, under den här perioden, var högst hälften av vår moderna nivå. Vi hävdar att stigningen som skedde i devon, delvis tack vare växternas intåg på land, och att stigningen kan speglas i att fiskar först då hade råd att jaga och växa sig stora. Slutligen visar jag också på hur det första stora massutdöendet kan vara sammankopplat med syrefria hav, snarare än kyla och mer syre än djuren klarade av. Ett komplext samspel mellan flera kemiska ämnen, utöver syre, tektonisk aktivitet och biologi ser ut att höra samman med den dramatiska uvecklingen för stora livsformer på jorden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 2012. 51 p.
Series
Meddelanden från Stockholms universitets institution för geologiska vetenskaper, 350
Keyword
Geochemistry, biology, paleontology, evolution, multicellularity
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75466 (URN)978-91-7447-486-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-11, William-Olssonsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-10 Created: 2012-04-19 Last updated: 2012-05-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text
By organisation
Department of Geological Sciences
In the same journal
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Geochemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 90 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf