Chemical risks and consumer products: The toxicity of shoe soles
2010 (English)In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 73, no 7, 1633-1640 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The European chemicals legislation, REACH, aims to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment. However, chemicals included in consumer products are covered only to a very limited extent even though they constitute the main source of chemical emissions. Shoes are large volume products and the overall aim of the present study was to study the ecotoxicological effects of three types of shoe soles and relate these effects to chemical emissions to the aquatic environment. The shoe soles were abraded and leached in water for 29 days and the alga Ceramium tenuicorne and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes were exposed to different concentrations of the leachate. Chemical analyses were performed to determine the chemical contents of the leachate. The main conclusions are that the shoe soles contain substances that are toxic to both test organisms, and that the toxicity is mainly explained by the presence of zinc. The estimated concentration of zinc from shoe soles in storm water runoff is low, but it still contributes to the overall load of chemicals and metals in the environment. The outlined test procedures may, in our view, provide a useful screening tool for assessing the risk that chemicals in consumer articles pose to the environment.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 73, no 7, 1633-1640 p.
Ceramium, Nitocra, Ecotoxicity, Leachate, REACH, Risk assessment
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-51666DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.06.016ISI: 000282792300020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-51666DiVA: diva2:385856
authorCount :32011-01-122011-01-122011-01-12Bibliographically approved