Solution of the Boltzmann equation for primary light ions and the transport of their fragments
2010 (English)In: Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams, ISSN 1098-4402, Vol. 13, no 10, 104702- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The Boltzmann equation for the transport of pencil beams of light ions in semi-infinite uniform media has been calculated. The equation is solved for the practically important generalized 3D case of Gaussian incident primary light ion beams of arbitrary mean square radius, mean square angular spread, and covariance. The transport of the associated fragments in three dimensions is derived based on the known transport of the primary particles, taking the mean square angular spread of their production processes, as well as their energy loss and multiple scattering, into account. The analytical pencil and broad beam depth fluence and absorbed dose distributions are accurately expressed using recently derived analytical energy and range formulas. The contributions from low and high linear energy transfer (LET) dose components were separately identified using analytical expressions. The analytical results are compared with SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and found to be in very good agreement. The pencil beam fluence and absorbed dose distributions of the primary particles are mainly influenced by an exponential loss of the primary ions combined with an increasing lateral spread due to multiple scattering and energy loss with increasing penetration depth. The associated fluence of heavy fragments is concentrated at small radii and so is the LET and absorbed dose distribution. Their transport is also characterized by the buildup of a slowing down spectrum which is quite similar to that of the primaries but with a wider energy and angular spread at increasing penetration depths. The range of the fragments is shorter or longer depending on their nuclear mass to charge ratio relative to that of the primary ions. The absorbed dose of the heavier fragments is fairly similar to that of the primary ions and also influenced by a rapidly increasing energy loss towards the end of their ranges. The present analytical solution of the Boltzmann equation accurately accounts for the loss of primary particles as well as their energy losses and multiple scattering. At the same time these quantities for the fragments are also accurately derived as based on the generalized Gaussian solution of the primaries and compared both with Monte Carlo and experimental data. The results are useful for fast transport calculations and biologically optimized therapy planning with light ion beams.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 13, no 10, 104702- p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-51656DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.104702ISI: 000283056600001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-51656DiVA: diva2:385893
authorCount :22011-01-122011-01-122011-01-12Bibliographically approved