Single and combined effects of hypoxia and contaminated sediments on the amphipod Monoporeia affinis in laboratory toxicity bioassays based on multiple biomarkers
2010 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 99, no 2, 263-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In estuaries, hypoxic conditions and pollution are among the major factors responsible for the declines in habitat quality, yet little is known about their combined effects on estuarine organisms. In this study, to investigate single and combined effects of hypoxia and contaminated sediment, the Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis was exposed for 5-9 days to four different combinations of oxygen conditions (moderate hypoxia vs. normoxia) and contamination (polluted vs. unpolluted sediments) at environmentally realistic levels. To detect oxidative stress, a suite of biomarkers was used - antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferases (GST)], acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation status (TBARS concentration), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and DNA strand breakage (DNA-SB). To assay effects at the organism level, we used RNA:DNA ratio as a proxy for growth and metabolic rate and mortality. There were significant increases in CAT and SOD activities and TBARS levels in response to both moderate hypoxia and contaminated sediment, while GST increased and AChE decreased in response to the contamination only. Significant positive correlations were observed among the antioxidant enzymes and between the enzyme activities and TBARS concentration, suggesting a complex response to the oxidative stress. No significant changes in PCC were recorded in any of the treatments. Furthermore, the negative effect of hypoxia on DNA integrity was significant; with frequency of DNA-SB increasing in animals exposed to hypoxia in contaminated sediment. Despite clear effect at the cellular and biochemical levels, no responses at the organism level were observed. Multivariate analyses of the dataset have allowed us to link exposure factors to individual biomarker responses. Of the potential biomarkers assessed in this study, CAT activity was found to be associated with hypoxia, while SOD, GST and AChE activities appear to predict best the effects of exposure to sediments containing several contaminants (e.g. heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs), and TBARS concentration is particularly indicative of combined effects of hypoxia and contamination. In addition to providing new knowledge on the combined effects of multiple stressors on estuarine organisms, the findings of the present study are also important to understand data from biomonitoring studies in the Baltic Sea and in other regions where multiple stress factors co-occur.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 99, no 2, 263-274 p.
AChE, Antioxidant enzymes, Contaminated sediments, DNA strand breaks, Hypoxia, Multivariate analysis, Oxidative stress biomarkers
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-52239DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.05.005ISI: 000280510700018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-52239DiVA: diva2:386945
authorCount :72011-01-132011-01-132014-04-23Bibliographically approved