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Single and combined effects of hypoxia and contaminated sediments on the amphipod Monoporeia affinis in laboratory toxicity bioassays based on multiple biomarkers
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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2010 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 99, no 2, 263-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In estuaries, hypoxic conditions and pollution are among the major factors responsible for the declines in habitat quality, yet little is known about their combined effects on estuarine organisms. In this study, to investigate single and combined effects of hypoxia and contaminated sediment, the Baltic amphipod Monoporeia affinis was exposed for 5-9 days to four different combinations of oxygen conditions (moderate hypoxia vs. normoxia) and contamination (polluted vs. unpolluted sediments) at environmentally realistic levels. To detect oxidative stress, a suite of biomarkers was used - antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferases (GST)], acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation status (TBARS concentration), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and DNA strand breakage (DNA-SB). To assay effects at the organism level, we used RNA:DNA ratio as a proxy for growth and metabolic rate and mortality. There were significant increases in CAT and SOD activities and TBARS levels in response to both moderate hypoxia and contaminated sediment, while GST increased and AChE decreased in response to the contamination only. Significant positive correlations were observed among the antioxidant enzymes and between the enzyme activities and TBARS concentration, suggesting a complex response to the oxidative stress. No significant changes in PCC were recorded in any of the treatments. Furthermore, the negative effect of hypoxia on DNA integrity was significant; with frequency of DNA-SB increasing in animals exposed to hypoxia in contaminated sediment. Despite clear effect at the cellular and biochemical levels, no responses at the organism level were observed. Multivariate analyses of the dataset have allowed us to link exposure factors to individual biomarker responses. Of the potential biomarkers assessed in this study, CAT activity was found to be associated with hypoxia, while SOD, GST and AChE activities appear to predict best the effects of exposure to sediments containing several contaminants (e.g. heavy metals, PCBs and PAHs), and TBARS concentration is particularly indicative of combined effects of hypoxia and contamination. In addition to providing new knowledge on the combined effects of multiple stressors on estuarine organisms, the findings of the present study are also important to understand data from biomonitoring studies in the Baltic Sea and in other regions where multiple stress factors co-occur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 99, no 2, 263-274 p.
Keyword [en]
AChE, Antioxidant enzymes, Contaminated sediments, DNA strand breaks, Hypoxia, Multivariate analysis, Oxidative stress biomarkers
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-52239DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.05.005ISI: 000280510700018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-52239DiVA: diva2:386945
Note
authorCount :7Available from: 2011-01-13 Created: 2011-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biomarkers and bioindicators of hypoxia and sediment toxicity in Monoporeia affinis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarkers and bioindicators of hypoxia and sediment toxicity in Monoporeia affinis
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Two of the most pressing environmental problems in the Baltic Sea are pollution and oxygen deficiency. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to evaluate a set of biomarkers and reproductive variables in the amphipod Monoporeia affinis to test their suitability as indicators of exposure to contaminants and hypoxia. In Paper I and Paper II, field-sampled M. affinis were exposed to varying oxygen conditions in combination with contaminated or reference sediment. Paper I showed that the combined effect of hypoxia and contaminants induced larger increases in antioxidant enzyme activities and higher levels of damaged lipids, resulting from oxidative stress, than single-stress treatments. The biomarkers AChE and GST responded only to the contaminant exposure. Paper II demonstrated that M. affinis can prepare against oxidative stress that facilitates recovery after a hypoxic episode, but that exposure to contaminants altered this response and resulted in higher baselines of antioxidants during hypoxia and no response upon reoxygenation. Paper III linked the occurrence of different embryo aberrations in M. affinis to concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and metals in sediments in the field. A key finding is that different types of embryo aberrations were associated with specific contaminant groups in the sediment. Paper IV addressed the link between biomarkers and bioindicators in M. affinis and found positive associations between increased antioxidant capacity in females and higher occurrence and frequencies of malformed and membrane-damaged embryos. AChE inhibition was linked to frequency of membrane-damaged embryos. Links between biomarker response and fecundity and embryo developmental stage were also established. Further, a large part of the variation in female antioxidant capacity and AChE activity could be explained by variation in concentrations of different metals, PAHs and PCB congeners, in combination with the environmental variables salinity, depth and sediment TOC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2014. 35 p.
Keyword
Biomarkers, Bioindicators, Embryo aberrations, Hypoxia, Contaminated sediment, PAHs, PCBs, Metals, Baltic Sea, Amphipods, Monoporeia affinis
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-102828 (URN)978-91-7447-905-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-05-28, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript; Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-05-06 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2014-04-25Bibliographically approved

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