Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Enheten för miljögiftsforskning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 1, 178-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The widespread presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in human general populations and their slow elimination profiles have led to renewed interest in understanding the potential human neonatal exposures of perfluoroalkyls (PFAs) from consumption of human milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk samples obtained in Sweden between 1972 and 2008 (a period representing the most significant period of PFA production) and to see whether the time trend of these analytes parallels that indicated in human serum. Chemical analysis of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA was performed on pooled Swedish human milk samples from 1972 to 2008 after methodological refinements. The 20 samples which formed the 2007 pool were also analyzed individually to evaluate sample variations. Analyses were performed by HPLC-MS/MS. Due to the complexities of the human milk matrix and the requirement to accurately quantitate low pg/mL concentrations, meticulous attention must be paid to background contamination if accurate results are to be obtained. PFOS was the predominant analyte present in the pools and all three analytes showed statistically significant increasing trends from 1972 to 2000, with concentrations reaching a plateau in the 1990s. PFOA and PFOS showed statistically significant decreasing trends during 2001-2008. At the end of the study, in 2008, the measured concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk were 75 pg/mL, 14 pg/mL, and 74 pg/mL, respectively. The temporal concentration trends of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA observed in human milk are parallel to those reported in the general population serum concentrations.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 37, no 1, 178-83 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences Ecology
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-53031DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2010.08.014ISI: 000285662600023OAI: diva2:389662
authorCount :7 Även konferensbidrag (Dioxin 2010, Organohalogen Compounds) Available from: 2011-01-19 Created: 2011-01-19 Last updated: 2012-10-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Radiosynthesis of Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Chemical analysis, uptake, distribution, and partitioning studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiosynthesis of Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Chemical analysis, uptake, distribution, and partitioning studies
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely utilized manmade chemicals. Their properties have made them highly appreciated in a variety of industrial and consumer product applications, including fire-fighting foams, hydraulic fluids, as well as in cookware and food contact papers.

However, some of the PFASs are highly persistent in the environment and their toxicological profiles are of concern. Voluntary and regulatory efforts have been taken to reduce the environmental levels of PFASs. These actions have resulted in a reduction of PFASs in human milk from Stockholm as presented in this thesis.

The radiosyntheses of 35S-PFOS, 35S-PFBS, and 14C-PFOA presented herein were applied for distribution studies in mice but also for solubility and adhesion experiments of common laboratory solvents and buffers. The radiosynthesis employed reactive Grignard reagents, perfluoroalkyliodides, and 35S-sulfur dioxide or 14C-carbon dioxide. The distribution studies were performed with 35S-PFOS on both pregnant mice and their offspring as well as on male mice. The mice were subjected to whole-body autoradiography and the tissues were analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. Liver and lungs were the target organs for 35S-PFOS in the dams. The fetuses and pups had remarkable high levels of 35S-PFOS in their lungs as well as in the brain. The male mice were given a high dose and a more environmental relevant dose of 35S-PFOS. PFOS was transferred from the blood to the tissues as the dose increased.

In another study the distribution pattern of the shorter homologue PFBS was compared to PFOS. 35S-PFBS was utilized and demonstrated a 5-40 fold lower tissue levels in comparison to PFOS.

The pharmacokinetic parameters determined for PFHxS in mice, rats, and monkeys will provide valuable insight in establishing a proper risk assessment for this compound. The study confirms the common species differences in serum elimination half-life that are associated with PFASs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2012. 65 p.
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81061 (URN)978-91-7447-579-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-11-16, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 6: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-10-25 Created: 2012-10-08 Last updated: 2012-10-12Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Sundström, MariaBignert, AndersBergman, Åke
By organisation
Environmental Chemistry
In the same journal
Environment International
Environmental SciencesEcology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 67 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link