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Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Umeå Universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
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2010 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 8, 1460-1468 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction  

Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison.

Materials and methods  

The samples were liquid–liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GS-MS).

Results and discussion  

The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE.

Conclusions  

Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 17, no 8, 1460-1468 p.
Keyword [en]
OH-PBDE, MeO-PBDE, PBDD, Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, Natural formation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-53032DOI: 10.1007/s11356-010-0331-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-53032DiVA: diva2:389666
Available from: 2011-01-19 Created: 2011-01-19 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Trends and exposure of naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic biota - with focus on OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends and exposure of naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic biota - with focus on OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The semi-enclosed and brackish Baltic Sea has become heavily polluted by nutrients, anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals via human activities. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been thoroughly investigated due to their linkage to toxic effects observed in Baltic biota. There has been far less focus on semi-persistent pollutants e.g. naturally produced oraganohalogen compounds (NOCs) and their disturbances in the environment. This thesis is aimed on assessment of levels and trends of naturally produced brominated compounds in Baltic biota; more specifically on hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs). These, NOCs, may originate from production in algae and cyanobacteria. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs may also be formed as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), i.e. well-known commercial flame retardants.

High levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are shown within Baltic biota (cyanobacteria, algae, mussels, fish), often in much higher concentrations than PBDEs which are possible anthropogenic precursors of OH- and MeO-PBDEs. The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are higher in the Baltic Sea than on the west coast of Sweden. Temporal and seasonal variations show fluctuations in concentrations of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs, possibly related with macroalgal life-cycles. OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are present in several filamentous macroalgae species, but considering the levels quantified, the time of peak exposure and the species life-cycle the macroalgae, Pilayella, Ceramium and Cladophora are suggested as major natural producers of OH-PBDEs and PBDDs.

The high levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs in the Baltic Sea may affect numerous organisms in the ecosystem. The toxic effects of OH-PBDEs and PBDDs are of particular concern. This thesis stress the importance of assessing and monitoring these substances, since the exposure to OH-PBDEs and PBDDs, during summer, may cause acute effects in Baltic fish and wildlife.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2011. 70 p.
Keyword
Batlic Sea, Natural production, OH-PBDE, MeO-PBDE, PBDD
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54421 (URN)978-91-7447-266-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-04, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: In press. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-02-10 Created: 2011-02-01 Last updated: 2011-02-03Bibliographically approved

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