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Seasonal variations of hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Beijing Normal University, PR China.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
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2011 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, no 4, 527-532 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) found at high levels in the Baltic biota are mainly natural products, but can also be formed through metabolism or abiotic oxidation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The formation of OH-PBDEs is of concern since there is growing evidence of phenolic toxicity. This study investigates seasonal variations in levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, focusing on an exposed species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), sampled in the Baltic Sea in May, June, August and October of 2008. Both the OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels in the mussels showed seasonal variations from May to October, the highest concentration of each congener appearing in June. The seasonal variation was more marked for OH-PBDEs than in MeO-PBDEs, but all congeners showed the same trends, except 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2′-MeO-BDE68, which did not significantly decline in concentrations after June. Biotic or abiotic debromination is suggested as a possible reason for the rapid decrease in methoxylated penta- and hexa-BDE concentrations observed in blue mussels from June to August, while the tetraBDE concentrations were stable. In addition, 1,3,7/1,3,8-tribrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins showed the same seasonal variation. The seasonal variations indicates natural formation and are unlikely to be due to transformation of anthropogenic precursors. The levels of PBDEs were fairly constant over time and considerably lower than those of the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. The timing of the peaks in concentrations suggests that filamentous macro-algae may be important sources of these compounds found in the blue mussels from this Baltic Sea location.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 84, no 4, 527-532 p.
Keyword [en]
OH-PBDE, MeO-PBDE, Natural production, Seasonal variations, Debromination
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-53199DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.001ISI: 000292716000024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-53199DiVA: diva2:390090
Available from: 2011-01-20 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Trends and exposure of naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic biota - with focus on OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trends and exposure of naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic biota - with focus on OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The semi-enclosed and brackish Baltic Sea has become heavily polluted by nutrients, anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals via human activities. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been thoroughly investigated due to their linkage to toxic effects observed in Baltic biota. There has been far less focus on semi-persistent pollutants e.g. naturally produced oraganohalogen compounds (NOCs) and their disturbances in the environment. This thesis is aimed on assessment of levels and trends of naturally produced brominated compounds in Baltic biota; more specifically on hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs). These, NOCs, may originate from production in algae and cyanobacteria. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs may also be formed as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), i.e. well-known commercial flame retardants.

High levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are shown within Baltic biota (cyanobacteria, algae, mussels, fish), often in much higher concentrations than PBDEs which are possible anthropogenic precursors of OH- and MeO-PBDEs. The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are higher in the Baltic Sea than on the west coast of Sweden. Temporal and seasonal variations show fluctuations in concentrations of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs, possibly related with macroalgal life-cycles. OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs are present in several filamentous macroalgae species, but considering the levels quantified, the time of peak exposure and the species life-cycle the macroalgae, Pilayella, Ceramium and Cladophora are suggested as major natural producers of OH-PBDEs and PBDDs.

The high levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs in the Baltic Sea may affect numerous organisms in the ecosystem. The toxic effects of OH-PBDEs and PBDDs are of particular concern. This thesis stress the importance of assessing and monitoring these substances, since the exposure to OH-PBDEs and PBDDs, during summer, may cause acute effects in Baltic fish and wildlife.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University, 2011. 70 p.
Keyword
Batlic Sea, Natural production, OH-PBDE, MeO-PBDE, PBDD
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54421 (URN)978-91-7447-266-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-04, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: In press. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-02-10 Created: 2011-02-01 Last updated: 2011-02-03Bibliographically approved

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Löfstrand, KarinLindqvist, DennisAsplund, Lillemor
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