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Levels of brominated flame retardants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles breeding in different regions of Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
2010 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 1, 238-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forty-four unhatched eggs from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), collected in four regions in Sweden in 1992–2005, were analysed for contents of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and naturally occurring methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs). Two freshwater areas—Lapland in the arctic zone (LAP) and inland lakes in central and southern Sweden (INL), and two brackish marine areas in the Baltic Sea—the south Bothnian Sea (SB) and the Baltic Proper (BP)—were chosen for comparison of the concentrations and congener distributions in white-tailed sea eagles with different diet and migratory patterns. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g lipid weight (l.w.)) of ∑5PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154) were 720 (LAP), 1500 (INL), 4 100 (SB) and 4 300 (BP), whereas BDE-209 was not detectable in any of the samples. The GM concentrations for HBCD content in LAP, INL, SB and BP were 60, 90, 150 and 140 ng/g l.w., respectively, whereas the corresponding values for BB-153 were 20, 30, 100 and 120 ng/g l.w. In general, the eggs from all four regions demonstrated similar patterns of PBDE congeners, with concentrations in descending order of BDE-47, -100, -99, -153 and -154. The ∑3-MeO-BDEs (6-MeO-BDE47, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 5-Cl-6-MeO-BDE47) for these same regions (as above) were 80, 40, 340 and 240 ng/g l.w., respectively. ∑3-MeO-BDEs for LAP and INL (freshwaters) were significantly different, whereas those for SB and BP were not. The presence of MeO-PBDEs in all of the inland samples indicates that there is an as-yet-unidentified source of these compounds in the freshwater ecosystem. Between the two more contaminated subpopulations from the Baltic Sea coast, SB showed significantly lower productivity than BP, but no correlation was found between productivity and PBDE, PBB and HBCD at the concentrations found in this study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 409, no 1, 238-246 p.
Keyword [en]
White-tailed sea eagle, Predatory birds, Eggs, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Polybrominated biphenyl, Hexabromocyclododecane, Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Reproduction
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-53268DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.09.042OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-53268DiVA: diva2:390322
Available from: 2011-01-21 Created: 2011-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Levels of organohalogen compounds in White-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to reproduction impairment in the Bothnian Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of organohalogen compounds in White-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to reproduction impairment in the Bothnian Sea
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is in the top of the marine food chain and its existence in Sweden has been threatened several times. The species succeeded to recover from the deep decline in the 1970s when the exposure to persistent organic pollutants influenced the reproduction negatively. The species is today spread over the country but is still seen as a near threatened species. Even though a recovery has occurred there is still some reproduction problems seen in the region of the south Bothnian Sea. The work presented in this thesis has focused on expanding the knowledge of bromine and chlorine containing compounds in the white-tailed sea eagles and to correlate the levels found with the reproduction impairment in the region of south Bothnian Sea. Eggs and blood from nestlings collected from different subpopulations, from the Arctic (Lapland) in the north to the Baltic Proper in the south of Sweden, have been studied for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), brominated flame retardants, methoxylated- (MeO-), and hydroxylated- (OH)-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Some of the investigated compounds have been compared with levels found in a unique white-tailed sea eagle egg collected in the Baltic Proper in 1941. The pattern and levels of PCDD and PCDF in 1941 were similar and in the same range as found today around the same area. Furthermore, the human activity has raised the PCB levels in the white-tailed sea eagles with over 120 times over the last 60 years but these levels are still much lower than in the 1970s. In conclusion none of the investigated compounds in this thesis could be correlated to the reduced reproduction seen in the south Bothnian Sea but the levels of PCDD, PCDF, non-ortho­-PCB and OH-PBDE are high in the populations inhabiting the Baltic Sea and are in the same range as found to cause different biological responses in other avian species worldwide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2012. 45 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74634 (URN)978-91-7447-478-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-05-04, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-04-12 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-04Bibliographically approved

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Nordlöf, UlrikaAsplund, Lillemor
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