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Valence-Level Dependent Presentation-Order Effects in Preference Judgments
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Reversal of the stimulus-presentation order often affects the outcome in paired stimulus comparison. Psychophysicists have found that the size and direction of the order effects depend on the compared stimuli’s magnitudes, but this magnitude dependence does not seem to have been recognized previously in cognitive research on preference judgment. The main objective of the present doctoral thesis was to investigate whether analogous valence-level dependent order effects exist for preference judgments of aesthetic preference of visual and of auditory stimuli (Study I) and of everyday objects and phenomena (e.g., Apple-Pear, Headache-Stomachache) denoted by labels and presented in a simple survey-questionnaire format (Studies II-III). An additional objective was to investigate if potential valence-level dependent order effects in Studies I-III could be accounted for using Hellström’s (1979, 2000) sensation weighting (SW) model. In Study I, there were valence-level dependent order effects favoring the second of two pleasant stimuli but the first of two unpleasant stimuli presented successively, but there were none for stimuli presented simultaneously. In Study II, there were valence-level dependent word-order effects (WOEs) favoring the left and first-read of two attractive stimuli but the right and last-read of two unattractive ones. Results were well accounted for using the SW model with a higher weight (i.e., greater impact on the comparison) for the second and the left stimulus in Studies I and II, respectively, and the valence level varying from low to high. Results of Study III indicate that the valence-level dependent WOEs in Study II were not due to the spatial positioning (left-right) of the stimuli but to the comparison being directed; the first read stimulus was compared to the second read, yielding a higher weight for the first read stimulus. The present results demonstrate robust order effects large enough to be of theoretical as well as practical relevance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stockholm University , 2011. , 73 p.
Keyword [en]
Preference judgment, order effects, stimulus valence, sensation weighting, feature matching, comparison direction
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54202ISBN: 978-91-7447-204-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-54202DiVA: diva2:392213
Public defence
2011-02-25, David Magnussonsalen (U31), Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2011-01-26 Created: 2011-01-26 Last updated: 2013-09-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Presentation-Order Effects for Aesthetic Stimulus Preference
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Presentation-Order Effects for Aesthetic Stimulus Preference
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For preference comparisons of paired successive musical excerpts, Koh (1967) found time-order effects (TOEs) that correlated negatively with stimulus valence–a tendency to prefer the first of two unpleasant excerpts and vice versa. Here we present three experiments designed to investigate whether valence-level dependent order effects for aesthetic preference (a) can be accounted for using Hellström’s (e.g., 1979) sensation-weighting (SW) model, (b) can be generalized to successive and to simultaneous visual stimuli, and (c) vary, in accordance with the stimulus weighting, with interstimulus interval (ISI; successive stimuli) or stimulus duration (simultaneous stimuli). Participants compared paired successive jingles (Experiment 1), successive color patterns (Experiment 2), and simultaneous color patterns (Experiment 3), selecting the preferred stimulus in each pair. Results were described well with the SW model: In Experiments 1 and 2, there were consistently higher weights for the second stimulus than for the first and negatively valence-level dependent TOEs. In Experiment 3, there was no consistent laterality effect on the stimulus weighting and no valence-level dependent SOE. In terms of the SW model, the valence-level dependent TOEs can be explained as a consequence of the differential stimulus weighting in combination with stimulus valence varying from low to high, and the absence of valence-level dependent SOEs as a consequence of the absence of systematic differential stimulus weighting. For successive stimuli, there were no important effects of ISI on the stimulus weighting and TOEs, and, for simultaneous stimuli, there was only a small effect of duration on the stimulus weighting, possibly reflecting stimulus scanning.

Keyword
time-order effect, space-order effect, preference judgment, sensation weighting
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54196 (URN)
Available from: 2011-01-26 Created: 2011-01-26 Last updated: 2011-01-30Bibliographically approved
2. If you have a choice, you have trouble: Stimulus valence modulates presentation-order effects in preference judgment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>If you have a choice, you have trouble: Stimulus valence modulates presentation-order effects in preference judgment
2012 (English)In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 25, no 1, 82-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well known that the presentation order of choice options often affects decision outcomes to a significant degree. However, despite the significance and wide occurrence of the effects, they are ignored in most preference models. Furthermore, psychophysical findings of stimulus-magnitude dependent presentation-order effects have not been acknowledged previously in the cognitive literature on preference judgments. Thus, the potential moderating effect of the level of stimulus magnitude (here, valence) on the direction and size of order effects in preference judgment has not been investigated previously. In two experiments, participants (117 and 204, respectively) rated their preference for pairs of everyday-type objects and phenomena (e.g., apple–pear, headache–stomachache). Stimuli were spaced horizontally, and each participant received them in one of two opposite within-pair presentation orders. Participants also rated the stimuli's valence on a scale from very bad to very good. The results showed a positive correlation between the rated valence and the tendency to prefer the first-mentioned (left) stimulus; that is, the effect was greatest, and opposite, for choices between the most attractive and the most unattractive options, respectively. In terms of Hellström's (1979) sensation-weighting model, the positive correlation is caused by a higher weight (i.e., impact on the preference judgment) for the left stimulus than for the right, which is possibly due to the left stimulus being compared to the right. The results suggest that researchers may have failed previously to find important moderators of presentation-order effects in preference judgment due to the failure to use sufficiently attractive or unattractive stimuli.

Keyword
feature matching, preference judgment, stimulus valence, word-order effect
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80938 (URN)10.1002/bdm.714 (DOI)000297740600008 ()
Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Beware how you compare: comparison direction dictates stimulus-valence-modulated presentation-order effects in preference judgment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beware how you compare: comparison direction dictates stimulus-valence-modulated presentation-order effects in preference judgment
2013 (English)In: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-3921, E-ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 75, no 5, 1001-1011 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Englund and Hellstrom (Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 25: 82-94, 2012a) found a tendency to prefer the left (first-read) of two attractive alternatives but the right (second-read) of two unattractive alternatives-a valence-dependent word-order effect (WOE). They used stimulus pairs spaced horizontally, and preference was indicated by choosing one of several written statements (e. g., apple I like more than pear). The results were interpreted as being due to stimulus position, with the magnitude of the left stimulus having a greater impact on the comparison outcome than the magnitude of the right. Here we investigated the effects of the positioning of the stimuli versus the semantics of the response alternatives (i.e., comparison direction) on the relative impacts of the stimuli. Participants rated preferences for stimuli spaced horizontally with the response alternatives not dictating a comparison direction (Exp. 1), and stimuli spaced vertically using Englund and Hellstrom's (Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 25: 82-94, 2012a) response alternatives, which dictate a comparison direction semantically (Exp. 2). The results showed that the valence-dependent WOE found by Englund and Hellstrom (Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 25: 82-94, 2012a) was not due to the horizontal stimulus positioning per se, but to the induced comparison direction, with the effect probably being mediated by attention directed at the subject of the comparison. We concluded that a set comparison direction is required for the valence-dependent WOE to appear, and that using Hellstrom's sensation-weighting model to determine stimulus weights is a way to verify the comparison direction.

Keyword
Preference judgment, Stimulus valence, Feature matching, Comparison direction, Sensation weighting, Word-order effect
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-93189 (URN)10.3758/s13414-013-0453-x (DOI)000322668000018 ()
Note

AuthorCount:2;

Available from: 2013-09-05 Created: 2013-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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