Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Mate acquisition by females in a butterfly: the effects of mating status and age on female mate-locating behaviour
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4560-6271
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4719-487X
2011 (English)In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 81, no 1, 225-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In most species, female reproductive success is determined by realized fecundity, which depends on the amount of female reproductive reserves and the availability of time for oviposition. Consequently, selection is likely to favour behaviour in virgin females that increases the likelihood of encountering males and thereby minimizing time without sperm. We used the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, to test the hypothesis that virgin females increase the probability of encountering males by behaving more conspicuously. We also tested for an effect of age on behaviour, with the prediction that females behave more conspicuously if they remain unmated for a longer period. To do this we conducted controlled behavioural studies in large outdoor cages, comparing the behaviour of young and old, virgin and mated, females. We also assessed the time it took for a male to discover virgin versus mated females. Our results show an effect of age and mating status: old virgin females behaved more conspicuously than young virgin females and mated females, and spent more time in flight and performed more individual flights. Males also discovered virgin females faster than mated females. Furthermore, virgin females did not specifically locate the large sunspot, where perching males are found. Hence, females of P. aegeria adjust their behaviour in accordance with mating status and age, making them more likely to encounter a male and thereby maximize their reproductive success. This study underlines the importance of taking the distribution and behaviour of receptive females into account when studying mate-locating behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 81, no 1, 225-229 p.
Keyword [en]
courtship solicitation, Lepidoptera, life history, Pararge aegeria, sexual selection, speckled wood butterfly, territoriality
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54265DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.10.009ISI: 000285412900029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-54265DiVA: diva2:392527
Available from: 2011-01-27 Created: 2011-01-27 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The evolution of territoriality in butterflies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The evolution of territoriality in butterflies
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Competition over mating opportunities is a conspicuous characteristic of animal behaviour. In many butterfly species the males establish territories in places advantageous for encountering females. This thesis addresses questions about how territoriality has evolved and is maintained in butterflies. The studies have been conducted using the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria, as a model species. Males of P. aegeria are found in sunspots on the forest floor (paper I-V), on the lookout for females visiting the sunspots. However, males are only found in sunspots above a certain size (paper III). This behavior is maintained by a mating success advantage, where using large sunspots instead of small sunspots as perching areas generates a higher reproductive output (paper I). The mating success asymmetry is not explained by female choice or by a female preference for large sunspots per se (paper I, V), but rather the large sunspot facilitates visual performance of perching males and improves flight pursuit and interception of females (paper III). Winners of territorial contests gain sole ownership of large sunspot territories, while losers search for a new suitable sunspot territory (paper I, II & IV) or use smaller, suboptimal sunspots as perching sites (paper II). Territorial contests between P. aegeria males are not settled due to an obvious morphological/physiological asymmetry (paper I). Rather, variation in resource value and motivational asymmetries are important for settling contests (paper IV). A majority of male-female interactions (paper V) and matings (paper I) are initiated by a perching male detecting and intercepting a flying female. Furthermore, females can affect their chances of being detected by a perching male by behaving more conspicuously (paper V). This thesis highlights the role of female behaviour, variation in resource value and motivation asymmetries to understand the evolution of territoriality in butterflies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2011. 27 p.
Keyword
territoriality, Lepidoptera, sexual selection, mating success, mate locating behaviour, resource-holding potential, motivation, courtship solicitation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-54668 (URN)978-91-7447-182-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-18, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-02-25 Created: 2011-02-10 Last updated: 2011-02-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergman, MartinGotthard, KarlWiklund, Christer
By organisation
Department of Zoology
In the same journal
Animal Behaviour
Natural Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 264 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf