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Gender differences in associations between ADL and other health indicators in 1992 and 2002
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
2011 (English)In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 23, no 2, 91-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Research has shown increased prevalence rates over time in several health indicators in the older population. These increases have not been accompanied by corresponding increases in ADL and IADL disability. Given that disability and other health indicators follow different trends, the associations between them may change. Since both health and disability appear to follow different trends for men and women, we can also expect gender differences in the associations. We examined gender differences in how objective tests of function as well as self-reported health and function indicators were associated with ADL/IADL in 1992 and 2002.

Methods: Data were from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions among the Oldest Old (SWEOLD), a nationally representative interview survey of persons aged 77+.

Results: Compared to men, women had significantly higher prevalence rates for most health indicators both survey years, but there were no significant gender differences in ADL/IADL limitations. Prevalence rates increased significantly between 1992 and 2002 for all health indicators, but not for ADL/IADL. Most of the associations between ADL/IADL and other health indicators were stronger for men than for women. The overall pattern was that associations have become weaker for women over time; for men, the picture was mixed.

Conclusions: The changing associations between ADL/IADL and other health indicators may reflect a complex interplay between changes in a range of social and environmental factors, some of which may be modifiable. ADL/IADL appear to reflect different dimensions of health and different kinds of needs for men and women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 23, no 2, 91-98 p.
Keyword [en]
gender differences, elderly population, disability, health, ADL, IADL
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-55279ISI: 000292805800003PubMedID: 21743288OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-55279DiVA: diva2:402206
Available from: 2011-03-07 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gender Matters: Differences and change in disability and health among our oldest women and men
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender Matters: Differences and change in disability and health among our oldest women and men
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates gender differences in health and how they have changed between 1992 and 2002 among very old people. It explores gender differences in the association between disability and health, and gender differences in care utilization among our oldest old people. The studies are based on nationally representative data of the population in Sweden aged 77 and older (SWEOLD).

 Results from Study I showed that women generally had more health problems than men. Analyses of change between 1992 and 2002 showed increased prevalence rates for both sexes, especially women. However, women’s reporting of poor global self-rated health did not increase. There were no gender differences and there was no change over time in activities of daily living (ADL). Several health indicators seem to be developing differently for women and men.

 Study II showed that associations between ADL disability and other health indicators changed between 1992 and 2002, with several health problems and functional limitations becoming less disabling over time. This trend was especially true for women, while for men, the findings were mixed.

 Study III found no gender differences in physician visits and dental visits, despite women’s worse health and dental status. Marriage was associated with more physician visits for men and dentist visits for women. Results imply that women and unmarried older adults may have unmet health-care needs.

 Study IV examined whether the increase in life expectancy at age 65 observed between 1992 and 2002 consisted of years with or without musculoskeletal pain. Results showed that total years without pain decreased for both women and men, but more so for women. Women also had more years with pain added to life.

 The results of this thesis suggest an increase of health problems, but not disability, in the oldest Swedish population. However, gender variations in the findings highlight the importance of analyzing health trends separately for women and men.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Social Work, Stockholm University, 2011. 90 p.
Series
Stockholm studies in social work, ISSN 0281-2851 ; 29
Keyword
oldest old, gender differences, health trends, disability, care utilization, healthy life expectancy, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-55282 (URN)978-91-7447-253-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-08, Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Sveaplan, Stockholm, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Submitted.Available from: 2011-03-17 Created: 2011-03-07 Last updated: 2011-03-17Bibliographically approved

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