Structural insights into an equilibrium folding intermediate of an archaeal ankyrin repeat protein
2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, no 10, 3779-3784 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Repeat proteins are widespread in nature, with many of them functioning as binding molecules in protein-protein recognition. Their simple structural architecture is used in biotechnology for generating proteins with high affinities to target proteins. Recent folding studies of ankyrin repeat (AR) proteins revealed a new mechanism of protein folding. The formation of an intermediate state is rate limiting in the folding reaction, suggesting a scaffold function of this transient state for intrinsically less stable ARs. To investigate a possible common mechanism of AIR folding, we studied the structure and folding of a new thermophilic AR protein (tANK) identified in the archaeon Thermoplasma volcanium. The x-ray structure of the evolutionary much older tANK revealed high homology to the human CDK inhibitor p19(INK4d), whose sequence was used for homology search. As for p19(INK4d), equilibrium and kinetic folding analyses classify tANK to the family of sequential three-state folding proteins, with an unusual fast equilibrium between native and intermediate state. Under equilibrium conditions, the intermediate can be populated to >90%, allowing characterization on a residue-by-residue level using NMR spectroscopy. These data clearly show that the three C-terminal ARs are natively folded in the intermediate state, whereas native cross-peaks for the rest of the molecule are missing. Therefore, the formation of a stable folding unit consisting of three ARs is the necessary rate-limiting step before AR1 and 2 can assemble to form the native state.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 105, no 10, 3779-3784 p.
folding kinetics protein folding, NMR, protein structure, Thermoplasma volcanium
Chemical Sciences Natural Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-59159DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0710657105ISI: 000253930600023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-59159DiVA: diva2:425465
authorCount :72011-06-212011-06-212011-06-21Bibliographically approved