Temperature Sensitivity Indicates That Chlorination of Organic Matter in Forest Soil Is Primarily Biotic
2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 10, 3569-3573 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Old assumptions that chloride is inert and that most chlorinated organic matter in soils is anthropogenic have been challenged by findings of naturally formed organochlorines. Such natural chlorination has been recognized for several decades, but there are still very few measurements of chlorination rates or estimates of the quantitative importance of terrestrial chlorine transformations. While much is known about the formation of specific compounds, bulk chlorination remains poorly understood in terms of mechanisms and effects of environmental factors. We quantified bulk chlorination rates in coniferous forest soil using Cl-36-chloride in tracer experiments at different temperatures and with and without molecular oxygen (O-2). Chlorination was enhanced by the presence of O-2 and had a temperature optimum at 20 degrees C. Minimum rates were found at high temperatures (50 degrees C) or under anoxic conditions. The results indicate (1) that most of the chlorination between 4 and 40 degrees C was biotic and driven by O-2 dependent enzymes, and (2) that there is also slower background chlorination occurring under anoxic conditions at 20 degrees C and under oxic conditions at 50 degrees C. Hence, while oxic and biotic chlorination clearly dominated, chlorination by other processes including possible abiotic reactions was also detected.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 43, no 10, 3569-3573 p.
weathering plant-material, bound chlorine, chloroacetic acids, chloroform, sweden, organochlorines, degradation, retention, catchment, emissions
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-60068DOI: 10.1021/es8035779ISI: 000266046700029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-60068DiVA: diva2:433147
authorCount :52011-08-092011-08-082011-08-09Bibliographically approved