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Phylogenetic placement and population structure of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) off Zanzibar, Tanzania, based on mtDNA sequences
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8270-7613
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
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2011 (English)In: Marine mammal science, ISSN 0824-0469, E-ISSN 1748-7692, Vol. 27, no 2, 431-448 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phylogenetic placement of bottlenose dolphins from Zanzibar, East Africa and putative population differentiation between animals found off southern and northern Zanzibar were examined using variation in mtDNA control region sequences. Samples (n= 45) from animals bycaught in fishing gear and skin biopsies collected during boat surveys were compared to published sequences (n= 173) of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, from southeast Australian waters, Chinese/Indonesian waters, and South African waters (which recently was proposed as a new species) and to published sequences of common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Bayesian and maximum parsimony analyses indicated a close relationship between Zanzibar and South African haplotypes, which are differentiated from both Chinese/Indonesian and Australian T. aduncus haplotypes. Our results suggest that the dolphins found off Zanzibar should be classified as T. aduncus alongside the South African animals. Further, analyses of genetic differentiation showed significant separation between the T. aduncus found off northern and southern Zanzibar despite the relatively short distance (approximately 80 km) between these areas. Much less differentiation was found between southern Zanzibar and South Africa, suggesting a more recent common evolutionary history for these populations than for the northern and southern Zanzibar populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 27, no 2, 431-448 p.
Keyword [en]
bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus, phylogenetic, mitochondrial DNA control region, population structure, Zanzibar
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-60503DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00416.xISI: 000289465900019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-60503DiVA: diva2:435294
Available from: 2011-08-17 Created: 2011-08-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ecology and genetic population structure of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in East Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecology and genetic population structure of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in East Africa
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many marine mammal populations are threatened by anthropogenic activities. The Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) off Zanzibar are subject to high levels of bycatch, negative impact from tourism and were previously hunted. To assess conservation status and to formulate necessary management actions for viable dolphin populations, knowledge of their population ecology is vital. This thesis provides information on population size, distribution, social structure, genetic diversity and population differentiation for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off southern Zanzibar. To investigate these parameters, individual identification and group structure data collected during boat based surveys were used in combination with genetic analyses of tissue samples from bycaught animals and skin biopsies from free ranging animals. The results show that the area off southern Zanzibar potentially constitute an important nursing ground (Paper I, II) for the relatively small population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins present year round (Paper I). The dolphins in this area live in a fission-fusion society where some animals also form long-term relationships (Paper II). Genetic analyses indicate limited exchange of reproducing females between northern and southern Zanzibar suggesting female philopatry with a greater dispersal by males (Paper III, IV). The relatively high genetic diversity of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off Zanzibar indicates no current threat to their genetic health, despite recent anthropogenic impacts. (Paper IV). On a greater geographical scale the results show that the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in the western Indian Ocean, ranging from Oman to South Africa, share a relatively recent common founder population and belong to a proposed third species within the genus Tursiops (Paper III, IV). Finally, the results presented demonstrate the value of a multi-disciplinary approach to determine the conservation status of animal populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2011. 23 p.
Keyword
Tursiops aduncus, population size, distribution, social structure, behaviour, conservation status, mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites, Zanzibar, western Indian Ocean
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-61077 (URN)978-91-7447-293-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-23, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
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Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Available from: 2011-09-01 Created: 2011-08-22 Last updated: 2011-08-24Bibliographically approved

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