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Comparative studies on alcohol-related problems in postwar Western Europe
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell , 2001. , 24 p.
Series
Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1650-819X ; 1
Keyword [en]
Alcohol-related problems, Western Europe, Comparative studies
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-62249ISBN: 91-22-01937-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-62249DiVA: diva2:440696
Public defence
2001-10-12, Aula Svea, Socialhögskolan, Sveavägen 160, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Härtill 4 uppsatser Available from: 2011-10-04 Created: 2011-09-13 Last updated: 2011-10-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Alcohol-related mortality in 15 European countries in the postwar period
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol-related mortality in 15 European countries in the postwar period
2002 (English)In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 18, no 4, 307-323 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper isto assess postwar differences and trends inalcohol-related mortality in the currentEuropean Union (minus Luxembourg plus Norway)on the basis of liver cirrhosis mortality anddeaths with explicit mention of alcohol,primarily alcohol dependence, alcohol psychosisand alcohol poisoning (AAA). The questionof the extent to which these indicators arecomparable across Western European countries isalso addressed. A marked north-south gradientwas found for cirrhosis mortality, with thehighest rates revealed in Southern Europe andthe lowest in Northern Europe. However, thisgradient weakened with the passage of time andthe initially quite substantial regionaldifferences declined during the latter part ofthe study period. Explicitly alcohol-relatedmortality (AAA), on the other hand, showed areverse cross-national pattern with the highestrates in the north and the lowest in the south.A positive cross-national relationship wasobserved between cirrhosis and per capitaconsumption but this match was not improved bycombining cirrhosis with explicitlyalcohol-related causes. Nevertheless, withinSouthern, Central and Northern Europeancountries the relationship between per capitaconsumption and AAA-mortality was positive. Itis concluded that cirrhosis mortality is usefulfor making rough national comparisons in aWestern European context whereas the validityof explicitly alcohol-related mortality isquestionable. Cultural differences in recordingpractices and drinking patterns are discussedas possible determinants of geographicaldifferences in AAA-mortality.

Keyword
alcohol-related mortality, European comparisons, comparability of causes of death data, per capita alcohol consumption, drinking patterns
National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63364 (URN)10.1023/A:1021105124283 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Per capita alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality in 14 European countries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Per capita alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality in 14 European countries
2001 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 96, no Supplement 1, 19-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. To estimate the effects of changes in per capita alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality rates in various demographic groups across 14 western European countries. Method. Yearly changes in gender- and age-specific mortality rates from 1950 to 1995 were analysed in relation to corresponding yearly changes in per capita alcohol consumption, employing the Box-Jenkins technique for time series analysis. Country-specific estimates were pooled into three regions: northern, central and southern Europe. Measurements. Cirrhosis mortality data for 5-year age groups were converted into gender-specific mortality rates in the age groups 15 +, 15-44, 45-64 and 65 + and expressed as the number of deaths per 100 000 inhabitants. Alcohol sales were used to measure aggregate consumption, which were calculated into consumption (litres 100% alcohol) per year per inhabitant over 14 years of age and weighted with a 10-year distributed lag model. Findings. The country-specific analyses demonstrated a positive and statistically significant effect of changes in per capita consumption on changes in cirrhosis mortality in 13 countries for males and in nine countries for females. The strongest alcohol effect was found in northern Europe, due mainly to a large effect in Sweden. Moreover, when different age groups were analysed significant estimates were obtained in 29 of 42 cases for males and in 20 of 42 cases for females. Most of the non-significant estimates were found in older age groups. Conclusions. The results suggest clearly that a change in the overall level of drinking as a general rule affect cirrhosis mortality in different drinking cultures as well as among different demographic groups. Moreover, the findings correspond with what is expected from the collectivity theory of drinking cultures.

National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-56797 (URN)10.1046/j.1360-0443.96.1s1.2.x (DOI)
Available from: 2011-04-27 Created: 2011-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
3. Alcohol and suicide in 14 European Countries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol and suicide in 14 European Countries
2001 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 96, no Supplement 1, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. To test the hypothesis that a positive population-level relationship between alcohol and suicide is more likely to be found in dry drinking cultures (as indicated by consumption level) than in wet drinking cultures. Design. Gender- and age-specific suicide rates in 14 western European countries were analysed in relation to per capita alcohol consumption employing the Box-Jenkins technique for time series analysis. The country-specific estimates were pooled into low-, medium- and high-consumption countries. Measurements. Suicide mortality data for 5-year age groups were converted into gender- and age-specific mortality rates. Alcohol sales expressed as litres of 100% alcohol per year and inhabitants 15 years and older were used as a measure of alcohol consumption. Findings. A positive and significant relationship between per capita consumption and gender- and age-specific suicide rates was revealed most often in northern Europe and found least often in southern Europe. A stronger absolute alcohol effect for men was found only in northern Europe, whereas the relative alcohol effect was somewhat stronger for women in both northern and central Europe. Also, the suicide rate in younger age groups was more often significantly related to per capita consumption than suicide among the elder in northern and central Europe but not in southern Europe. Conclusions. The population-level association between alcohol and suicide is conditioned by cultural factors. In general, the suicide rate tends to be more responsive to changes in alcohol consumption in drinking cultures characterized by a low post-war per capita consumption compared to drinking cultures with higher consumption levels. The findings give support to the hypothesis derived from previous theoretical and empirical work, suggesting that suicide and alcohol is more closely connected in dry cultures than in wet cultures.

National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-56822 (URN)10.1046/j.1360-0443.96.1s1.6.x (DOI)
Available from: 2011-04-28 Created: 2011-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Alcohol consumption and the experience of adverse consequences: a comparison of six European countries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol consumption and the experience of adverse consequences: a comparison of six European countries
2002 (English)In: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 29, no 3, 549-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes prevalence rates of self-reported experiences of alcohol-related problems in six Western European countries and examines how self-reported consumption of alcohol is associated with the likelihood of experiencing these problems. Of particular interest is to assess whether alcohol is more strongly associated with the likelihood of experiencing adverse consequences in Northern Europe than in countries in Central and Southern Europe. Data on self-reported volume of drinking and binge drinking and of experiences of various alcohol-related problems from a general population survey undertaken in Finland, Sweden, Germany, the UK, France and Italy during the spring of 2000 were analyzed. The number of respondents was about 1,000 men and women (ages 18-64) in each country. In the assessment of the link between drinking and harm, results showed that the overall prevalence of alcohol-related harm was highest in Finland and the UK and lowest in Southern Europe. A general positive association was found between volume of drinking and problems, although some country differences were observed. The risk curve analysis also revealed that problems occurred at fairly low drinking levels. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, the volume of drinking and a measure of binge drinking were both statistically significant predictors of most problems in most countries. A major conclusion is that both volume of drinking and binge drinking are important determinants of the risk of experiencing adverse consequences from drinking in all six European countries.

National Category
Social Work
Research subject
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-57204 (URN)
Available from: 2011-05-04 Created: 2011-05-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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