Regulation and Function of RNA Editing in the Mammalian Brain
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional mechanism in eukaryotes that increases the protein diversity. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are the enzymes that catalyze this conversion. The diversity generated by ADAR enzymes occurs mainly in the brain where they target transcripts coding for proteins in the central nervous system (CNS).
We have determined the editing frequency of known ADAR substrates during development of the mouse brain using the large-scale 454-sequencing method. We show in paper I that editing is regulated during development of the brain, where it increases along with the maturation of the brain. We propose that the unedited isoform of proteins are required for the undeveloped brain while the edited isoforms are more suitable for the mature brain.
In paper II we show that substrates with multiple editing sites, one specific principle adenosine is favored for initial editing. We demonstrate that within these substrates, editing is coupled when adenosines are located in multiples of twelve nucleotides. These edited adenosines reside on the same side in the tertiary RNA helical structure. A model is suggested where kinetically favored structures at principle editing sites attract ADAR to the substrate, followed by editing at sites that are structurally adjacent to the initiation site.
Editing of the mammalian Gabra-3 transcripts coding for the GABAA receptor α3 subunits recodes an isoleucine (I) to a methionine (M) referred as the I/M site. In paper III we demonstrate that receptors containing edited α3 subunits have altered trafficking properties compared to receptors containing unedited α3 subunits. We suggest that the amino acid residue change, affects protein interactions required for stability and trafficking of GABAA receptors. We propose that the biological function of editing is to reduce the number of α3 subunits in favor of other α subunits.
The dsRNA structure at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript is formed within the exon 9 sequence. We show in paper IV that a conserved intronic dsRNA structure in the downstream intron is required for editing to occur at the I/M site. We demonstrate that in the context of this intronic duplex also non-ADAR substrates can be edited. We propose that the intronic dsRNA stabilize the short I/M stem structure, thereby increasing the ability of ADAR to bind and edit the I/M site. These discoveries have expanded the knowledge in how ADAR editing is employed to supply the development of the brain as well as the RNA structure requirement for editing to occur.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, Stockholm University , 2011. , 69 p.
RNA editing, ADAR, GABAA receptor, Gabra-3
Research subject Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-62278ISBN: 978-91-7447-363-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-62278DiVA: diva2:440803
2011-10-21, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Rosenthal, Joshua, Associate Professor
Öhman, Marie, Professor
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.2011-09-292011-09-132013-09-09Bibliographically approved
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