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Visualizing a Time-Space Constraint Increases Performance in a Dynamic Search Task
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
2010 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, ISSN 1555-3434, Vol. 4, no 4, 275-287 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a display manipulation designed to support search tasks in which the location of the target is unknown and changes over time. The problem is analogous to that of a naval search task when there is an initial sighting and then the naval force must guide its search vehicles to reestablish contact with the fleeing target. The display manipulation visualizes a dynamic constraint on the area where a fleeing target can be found and adjusts its shape to the environment and to the search efforts. Forty participants without prior knowledge of search tactics completed 12 trials in an experiment that compared performance with and without the visualization aid and controlled for learning effects. The results suggest that this visualization improves performance in the dynamic search task. They further suggest that the visualization was easy to learn but that the learning effect did not transfer to a condition without visualization. The results have practical utility for both military and civil search tasks, and they are consistent with other research that emphasizes that control interfaces should make constraints in the task environment perceptually available.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 4, no 4, 275-287 p.
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-62788OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-62788DiVA: diva2:444732
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2011-10-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Supporting Dynamic Decision Making in Naval Search and Evasion Tasks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting Dynamic Decision Making in Naval Search and Evasion Tasks
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates a decision aid to support tasks where there is an initial sighting of an object and then the decision maker has to guide some vehicles, either to reestablish contact with the lost object or to stay clear of it. As such, the tasks are analogous to naval search and evasion tasks. The decision aid helps a user to keep track of where enemy units can be by visualizing constraints on the units’ movement. Six studies are included. The first investigates how commanders judge the threat in a tactical situation and what they do to control that threat. The results point to that analysis of the enemy is a difficult task and has the potential to be improved by a support system. The second study investigates how commanders analyze the enemy. The results suggest that the uncertainties regarding the location and behavior of the enemy are central problems for the commander. It further describes a strategy that the participants use to cope with those problems, and the strategy is used as basis for the proposed decision aid. The remaining studies are experiments in which the support system is evaluated. A search task and an evasion task are used, and participants with and without experience from the tasks participate. The results suggest that the decision aid increased performance in both tasks and that both university students and navy officers gained from using it. Further, when using the visualization novice participants performed on the same level as the experienced. It was easy to learn how to use the visualization, and transfer to a situation without it depended on the complexity of its outline. The findings have practical application for designers of command and control support systems as they indirectly suggest that people have problems in inferring the whereabouts of contacts of which they only have fragmentary information. Thus, including the proposed decision aid in the design of such systems may have positive impact on overall system performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, 2011. 71 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 11-010
Keyword
Decision support, visualization, dynamic decision-making, naval warfare, expanding search area, field of safe travel, search task, evasion task, ecological interface, anti-submarine warfare, constraints, flaming datum
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-62814 (URN)978-91-7447-352-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-11, lecture room 401, Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-20 Created: 2011-09-30 Last updated: 2011-10-20Bibliographically approved

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