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Tephra horizons contemporary with short early Holocene climate fluctuations: New results from the Faroe Islands
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
2011 (English)In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 246, 157-167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The climate of the North Atlantic region was relatively unstable after the last Termination.At least three cold events superimposed upon a general warming took place during the earliest part of the Holocene: the Preboreal oscillation (11,300-11,100 cal. yr BP), the Erdalen event (10,300-10,200 cal. yr BP) and the 9.3 ka BP event. New results from the Faroe Islands could give the opportunity to test hypothesis regarding synchronous or non-synchronous response to climate forcing in the North Atlantic area. Seven tephra layers have been identified in a palaeo-lake core from the island of Sandoy on the Faroe Islands, dated to 11,700-9750 cal. yr BP. Three tephras were found below the visible Saksunarvatn Ash (ca. 10,300 cal. yr BP) and three above it. The rhyolitic Hässeldalen Tephra dated to ca. 11,350 cal. yr BP and previously only found in Sweden, a double-peaked basaltic tephra from the Veidivötn-Bárdarbunga volcanic system at the same depth and another rhyolitic tephra from the Askja volcanic system dated to ca. 10,400 cal. yr BP, tentatively correlated with the Askja-S/10 ka Tephra. Askja-S has earlier been found in large parts of the terrestrial North Atlantic region but not on the Faroe Islands. The three tephra layers above the Saksunarvatn Ash are all unreported tephras. A rhyolitic tephra with an age of ca. 10,200 cal. yr BP, that is still unidentified, one silicic layer from the Katla volcano (SILK) and a tephra correlated with the Torfajökull volcanic system, both with an estimated age of ca. 9700 cal. yr BP. These tephra horizons provide a unique potential to link not only the terrestrial records from NW Europe but alsotocorrelate them to ice-cores from Greenland. The findings of the Hässeldalen Tephra, the Askja-S Tephra and the new tephra correlating toTorfajökullvolcanic systemcould become important time-markers for correlating the Preboreal Oscillation and the Erdalen event around the North Atlantic region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011. Vol. 246, 157-167 p.
Keyword [en]
tephra, Faroe Islands, early Holocene, Hässeldalen Tephra, Askja-S, Torfajökull
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Quarternary Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-62887DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2011.05.014ISI: 000298270600015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-62887DiVA: diva2:445410
Available from: 2011-10-03 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Tephra horizons in the North Atlantic region during the Early Holocene
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tephra horizons in the North Atlantic region during the Early Holocene
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Uncertainties about the rate and magnitude of future climate change have drawn attention to the climate variability following the Late Glacial-Early Holocene transition, c. 12-8 ka BP. Tephrochronology is a method that uses volcanic ash as isochrons in order to link, date and synchronise geological and palaeoclimatic records which could provide a better understanding of short rapid climate shifts but also the timing of these.

The main purpose of this thesis was to improve and refine the Late Younger Dryas-Early Holocene (c. 12-8 ka BP) tephrochronological framework with focus on dating and identification of new and previously known tephra horizons in the North Atlantic region. A special emphasis was to identify tephra horizons contemporary to short rapid climate events that occurred during the period; the Preboreal Oscillation (c. 11.3 ka BP), the Erdalen events (c. 10.0-9.8 ka BP), the 9.3 ka BP and the 8.2 ka BP events. Additional purposes have been to evaluate the potential of XRF ITRAX core-scanning to identify tephra in lake sediments but also as a tool in palaeoclimate studies.

The potential of tephrochronology for linking climate archives across the North Atlantic region is a main outcome in this thesis. Specific results include five new tephra horizons; four identified on the Faroe Islands and one in Central Norway. Two previously known tephras, the Hässeldalen and Askja-S tephras, were identified on the Faroe Islands for the first time and at new locations in Sweden which confirmed their widespread distribution in NW Europe. Several of these tephras have the potential to become marker horizons for some of the short rapid climate events which occurred during the Late Younger Dryas-Early Holocene but their importance is yet to be determined. Further results show that the XRF core scanner can be used successfully to identify high concentrations of basaltic tephra but also to identify palaeoclimatic events in lake sediments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, 2014. 116 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 41
Keyword
Tephrochronology, geochemical composition, Saksunarvatn Ash, Vedde Ash, Fosen Tephra, Askja-S, palaeoclimate, Younger Dryas, Early Holocene, “XRF ITRAX”, sediment geochemistry, stable isotopes, Faroe Islands, Norway, Sweden
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Quaternary Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-99634 (URN)978-91-7447-847-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-21, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-01-30 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2014-01-22Bibliographically approved

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