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Dietary intake estimates of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids for the general Swedish population in 1999, 2005 and 2010
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dietary intake has been estimated to be the major ongoing pathway of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). However, difficulties associated with the analysis of food samples have hampered the reliable quantification of dietary exposure. Here the dietary exposure of the average Swedish population to PFCAs and PFSAs is estimated through analysis of a range of homologues in representative food basket samples from 1999, 2005 and 2010. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (796−1424 pg kg

-1day-1), perfluoroundecanoic acid (88−212 pg kg-1day-1), perfluorodecanoic acid (52−102 pg kg-1day-1) and perfluorononanoic acid (62−83 pg kg-1day-1) was dominated by the consumption of fish and meat. In contrast, exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (322−513 pg kg-1day-1) originated from low levels (8−62 pg g-1) found in several ―high consumption‖ food categories including cereals, dairy products, vegetables and fruit. The average body weight normalized dietary intakes (pg kg-1day-1) were fairly constant between 1999 and 2010 for all PFCAs and PFSAs demonstrating that dietary intake has been a continuous exposure pathway for these compounds during this period when many manufacturing changes occurred. Although statistically significant temporal trends in the average dietary intake estimates could not be determined, there is preliminary evidence of a downward time trend in the concentrations of PFOS in eggs and meat products and an upward trend of PFDA, PFUnDA, perfluorododecanoic acid and perfluorotridecanoic acid in fish products, which both warrant further investigation. In line with recent studies, dietary intake was found to be the major ongoing human exposure pathway for both PFOA and PFOS (~70% of the total exposure) for the Swedish population compared to exposure via ingestion of household dust and drinking water. The calculated higher total dietary exposure to PFOA compared to PFNA is consistent with the pattern observed in human serum, although there are several other exposure pathways which could explain this homologue pattern in serum.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63657OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-63657DiVA: diva2:451626
Available from: 2011-10-26 Created: 2011-10-26 Last updated: 2011-10-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) are persistent organic contaminants which have been globally measured in human serum samples at low μg L-1 concentrations. One hypothesis, the so-called "indirect hypothesis", postulates that exposure to precursor compounds is responsible for the presence of PFCAs and PFSAs in human serum. The main purpose of this thesis was to test an alternative hypothesis that direct intake of PFCAs and PFSAs via the diet is the dominant ongoing pathway of exposure. Exposure modeling results in paper I and II demonstrate that dietary intake is the major exposure pathway of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), while known precursors account for only a few percent of the total exposure. To address the uncertainties related to dietary intake pathways, highly sensitive analytical methods for a range of PFCAs and PFSAs are developed, validated and applied in paper III and IV. By the development of a novel analytical technique in paper III, detection limits in the pg g-1 range are achieved for a wide range of analytes in different food categories. Analysis of a large set of food basket samples from the Swedish market in paper IV shows that the concentrations in many dietary samples are lower than those used to estimate exposure to PFOA and PFOS in paper I and II. However, an updated dietary intake estimate in paper IV supports the conclusion of paper I and II that dietary intake is the major ongoing human exposure pathway for the general population. Pharmacokinetic modeling undertaken in paper II was reevaluated in this thesis and back-calculated daily intakes from serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS are shown to be in agreement with the estimated dietary intakes from paper IV. However, due to uncertainties and simplifying assumptions in the pharmacokinetic model, it is possible that there are additional pathways of human exposure contributing to human serum levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 2011. 46 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63685 (URN)978-91-7447-391-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-02, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-11-10 Created: 2011-10-26 Last updated: 2011-10-31Bibliographically approved

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