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Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in Swedish indoor microenvironments: Implications for human exposure
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs, specifically perfluoroalkane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)). They are used in consumer products found in cars, offices, homes and day care centers. Diet was earlier thought to be a major human exposure route for legacy POPs, but does not account for body burdens found for many new POPs and indoor exposure from air and dust has been hypothesized as also important.

In this thesis, BFRs in air and dust, and PFAAs in dust from different indoor microenvironments in Sweden were analysed, and the results used to estimate human exposure. BFRs and PFAAs were detected in dust from all microenvironments and PBDEs in all air samples. BFR and PFAA exposure occurs mostly in peoples’ homes with toddlers having higher intakes from dust ingestion than adults. Inhalation and dust ingestion play minor roles compared to diet for humans with median exposures, but in worst case scenarios, dust ingestion may be significant for a small part of the Swedish population. Sampling using home vacuum cleaner bag dust and researcher-collected above floor dust was compared. Correlations were seen for ∑OctaBDE and ∑DecaBDE but not for ∑PentaBDE and HBCD. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in above floor dust but higher HBCD concentrations were found in vacuum cleaner bag dust. BDE-47 concentrations were correlated between vacuum cleaner bag dust and breast milk, indicating exposure through dust ingestion.

Similar concentrations of PBDEs were measured in indoor and outgoing air from day care centers, apartment and office buildings. Indoor air explained 54-92% of ∑PentaBDE and 24-86% of BDE-209 total emissions to outdoor air in Sweden, supporting the hypothesis that the indoor environment is polluting ambient air via ventilation systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2011. , 49 p.
Keyword [en]
PBDEs, HBCD, PFOS, PFOA, indoor air, indoor dust, breast milk, human exposure, emission
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63701ISBN: 978-91-7447-393-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-63701DiVA: diva2:451881
Public defence
2011-12-09, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Accepted. Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2011-11-17 Created: 2011-10-27 Last updated: 2013-04-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust: concentrations, human exposure estimates, and sources
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust: concentrations, human exposure estimates, and sources
2009 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 7, 2276-2281 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are globally distributed, persistent, toxic, and are found in human blood and serum. Exposure pathways are not well characterized. To better understand indoor dust ingestion as a potential pathway for human exposure, we determined the concentrations of these compounds in dust collected from 10 houses, 38 apartments, 10 day care centers, 10 offices, and 5 cars. Samples were prepared using a rapid extraction and cleanup method and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. PFOS and PFOA were found in dust samples from all microenvironments and their concentrations were significantly positively correlated to each other. Highest median concentrations were seen in offices (PFOS: 110 ng/g dry weight) and apartments (PFOA: 93 ng/g dw). Adult and toddler dust ingestion exposures were estimated and compared to dietary exposure data from Canada and Spain. Results show that diet is the most important exposure route, but in a worst case scenario, dust ingestion may also be significant.

National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-34607 (URN)10.1021/es803201a (DOI)19452874 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-11 Created: 2010-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 1: Levels and profiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 1: Levels and profiles
(English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63899 (URN)
Available from: 2011-11-02 Created: 2011-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. Comparisons of PBDE and HBCD concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparisons of PBDE and HBCD concentrations in dust collected with two sampling methods and matched breast milk samples
Show others...
(English)In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-63904 (URN)
Available from: 2011-11-02 Created: 2011-11-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
4. Indoor Air Is a Significant Source of Tri-decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Outdoor Air via Ventilation Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor Air Is a Significant Source of Tri-decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers to Outdoor Air via Ventilation Systems
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 11, 5876-5884 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ventilation of indoor air has been hypothesized to be a source of PBDEs to outdoors. To study this, tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed in outgoing air samples collected inside ventilation systems just before exiting 33 buildings and compared to indoor air samples from microenvironments in each building collected simultaneously. Median Sigma 10PBDE (BDE- 28, -47, -99, -153, -183, -197, -206, -207, -208, -209) concentrations in air from apartment, office and day care center buildings were 93, 3700, and 660 pg/m(3) for outgoing air, and 92, 4700, and 1200 pg/m(3) for indoor air, respectively. BDE-209 was the major congener found. No statistically significant differences were seen for individual PBDE concentrations in matched indoor and outgoing air samples, indicating that outgoing air PBDE concentrations are equivalent to indoor air concentrations. PBDE concentrations in indoor and outgoing air were higher than published outdoor air values suggesting ventilation as a conduit of PBDEs, including BDE-209, from indoors to outdoors. BDE-209 and sum of BDE-28, -47, -99, and -153 emissions from indoor air to outdoors were roughly estimated to represent close to 90% of total emissions to outdoor air for Sweden, indicating that contaminated indoor air is an important source of PBDE contamination to outdoor air.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79920 (URN)10.1021/es204122v (DOI)000304783000033 ()
Note

AuthorCount:6;

Available from: 2012-09-11 Created: 2012-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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