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Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. (Plant Physiology)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
2011 (English)In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 13, no 1, 95-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 µM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 µM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 13, no 1, 95-106 p.
Keyword [en]
Cadmium uptake, Elodea canadensis, pH increase, photosynthesis, phytofiltration
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-64325DOI: 10.1080/15226511003753987ISI: 000292159200025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-64325DiVA: diva2:457066
Available from: 2011-11-16 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanisms behind pH changes by plant roots and shoots caused by elevated concentration of toxic elements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms behind pH changes by plant roots and shoots caused by elevated concentration of toxic elements
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Toxic elements are present in polluted water from mines, industrial outlets, storm water etc. Wetland plants take up toxic elements and increase the pH of the medium. In this thesis was investigated how the shoots of submerged plants and roots of emergent plants affected the pH of the surrounding water in the presence of free toxic ions. The aim was to clarify the mechanisms by which these plants change the surrounding water pH in the presence of toxic ions.

The influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on the pH of the surrounding water was studied in the presence of cadmium (Cd) at low initial pH (4-5). The involvement of photosynthetic activity in the pH changes was investigated in the presence and absence of Cd. The cytosolic, vacuolar and apoplasmic pH changes as well as cytosolic Cd changes in E. canadensis were monitored. The influence of Eriophorum angustifolium roots on the pH of the surrounding water was investigated in the presence of a combination of Cd, copper, lead, zinc and arsenic at low initial pH (3.5). Eriophorum angustifolium root exudates were analyzed for organic acids.

Elodea canadensis shoots increased the pH of the surrounding water, an effect more pronounced with increasing Cd levels and/or increasing plant biomass and increased plant Cd uptake. The pH increase in the presence of free Cd ions was not due to photosynthesis or proton uptake across the plasmalemma or tonoplast. Cadmium was initially sequestered in the apoplasm of E. canadensis and caused its acidosis. Eriophorum angustifolium roots increased the surrounding water pH and this effect was enhanced in the presence of arsenic and metals. This pH increase was found to depend partly on the release of oxalic acid, formic acid and succinic acid by the plants.

In conclusion, E. canadensis shoots and E. angustifolium roots were found to increase the low initial pH of the surrounding water. The pH modulation by these species was enhanced by low levels of free toxic ions in the surrounding water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 2011. 40 p.
Keyword
Elodea canadensis, Eriophorum angustifolium, fluorescence microscopy, mechanisms, metals and metalloid, pH changes, protoplasts, phytofiltration, phytostabilization, root exudates
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-64324 (URN)978-91-7447-413-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-20, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-11-28 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2011-11-28Bibliographically approved

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