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pH changes and organic acids exudation by Eriophorum angustifolium roots exposed to elevated concentration of toxic elements
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Eriophorum angustifolium roots on surrounding water pH in the presence of heavy metals and As, and the possible mechanism behind. We monitored the pH in the surrounding nutrient solution by E. angustifolium roots at a starting pH 3.5 and in the presence of a combination of As, Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn at different concentrations. The metal and As contents in the plant shoots and roots were analyzed as well as organic acids in the root exudates. Fluorescence microscopy and a pH-specific fluorescent dye were used to investigate the influence of different elements on apoplastic pH of E. angustifolium roots. The results showed that the roots have the ability to increase the rhizosphere pH even in the presence of different free metal ions and As. The plant root metal and As contents were significantly higher as compared with shoots. Metal and As treatment at higher concentrations significantly caused the apoplastic pH to increase in this species. Of the acids analyzed, the exudation of the oxalic, formic and succinic acids was significantly enhanced after metal and As exposure, as compared with control, giving the maximum concentration of these acids after 25 µM As, Cu, Zn, Pb and 2.5 µM Cd treatment. The roots of E. angustifolium respond to toxic ions by releasing organic acids, which transiently induce rhizosphere basification.

Keyword [en]
Eriophorum angustifolium, Heavy metals and As, pH changes, Organic acids, Phytostabilization
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-64327OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-64327DiVA: diva2:457078
Note
In thesis, Mechanisms behind pH changes by plant roots and shoots caused by elevated concentration of toxic elementsAvailable from: 2011-11-16 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2011-11-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanisms behind pH changes by plant roots and shoots caused by elevated concentration of toxic elements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms behind pH changes by plant roots and shoots caused by elevated concentration of toxic elements
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Toxic elements are present in polluted water from mines, industrial outlets, storm water etc. Wetland plants take up toxic elements and increase the pH of the medium. In this thesis was investigated how the shoots of submerged plants and roots of emergent plants affected the pH of the surrounding water in the presence of free toxic ions. The aim was to clarify the mechanisms by which these plants change the surrounding water pH in the presence of toxic ions.

The influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on the pH of the surrounding water was studied in the presence of cadmium (Cd) at low initial pH (4-5). The involvement of photosynthetic activity in the pH changes was investigated in the presence and absence of Cd. The cytosolic, vacuolar and apoplasmic pH changes as well as cytosolic Cd changes in E. canadensis were monitored. The influence of Eriophorum angustifolium roots on the pH of the surrounding water was investigated in the presence of a combination of Cd, copper, lead, zinc and arsenic at low initial pH (3.5). Eriophorum angustifolium root exudates were analyzed for organic acids.

Elodea canadensis shoots increased the pH of the surrounding water, an effect more pronounced with increasing Cd levels and/or increasing plant biomass and increased plant Cd uptake. The pH increase in the presence of free Cd ions was not due to photosynthesis or proton uptake across the plasmalemma or tonoplast. Cadmium was initially sequestered in the apoplasm of E. canadensis and caused its acidosis. Eriophorum angustifolium roots increased the surrounding water pH and this effect was enhanced in the presence of arsenic and metals. This pH increase was found to depend partly on the release of oxalic acid, formic acid and succinic acid by the plants.

In conclusion, E. canadensis shoots and E. angustifolium roots were found to increase the low initial pH of the surrounding water. The pH modulation by these species was enhanced by low levels of free toxic ions in the surrounding water.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 2011. 40 p.
Keyword
Elodea canadensis, Eriophorum angustifolium, fluorescence microscopy, mechanisms, metals and metalloid, pH changes, protoplasts, phytofiltration, phytostabilization, root exudates
National Category
Botany
Research subject
Plant Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-64324 (URN)978-91-7447-413-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-20, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2011-11-28 Created: 2011-11-16 Last updated: 2011-11-28Bibliographically approved

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