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Pre-Production Validation of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 53, no 3, 859-863 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a major part of the first stage of event selection for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a digital, pipelined system with several stages of processing, largely based on FPGAs, which perform programmable algorithms in parallel with a fixed latency to process about 300 Gbyte/s of input data. The real-time output consists of counts of different types of trigger objects and energy sums. Prototypes of all module types have been undergoing intensive testing before final production during 2005. Verification of their correct operation has been performed stand-alone and in the ATLAS test-beam at CERN. Results from these investigations will be presented, along with a description of the methodology used to perform the tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 53, no 3, 859-863 p.
National Category
Subatomic Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-64529DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2006.874798OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-64529DiVA: diva2:458076
Projects
ATLAS at LHC at CERN
Note
R. Achenbach et al. (43 authors)Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. FPGA-based Instrumentation for Advanced Physics Experiments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FPGA-based Instrumentation for Advanced Physics Experiments
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Modern physical experiments often demand advanced instrumentation based on advances in  technology. This work describes four instrumentation physics projects that are based on modern, high-capacity Field-Programmable Gate Arrays, making use of their versatility, programmability, high bandwidth communication interfaces and signal processing capabilities.

In the first project, a jet-finding algorithm for the ATLAS detector at the LHC experiment at CERN was developed and implemented, and different verification methods were created to validate the functionality and reliability. The experiment uses a three level trigger system, where the first level uses custom FPGA-based hardware for analysis of collision events in real-time.

The second project was an advanced timing and triggering distribution system for the new European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility at DESY in Hamburg. XFEL will enable scientists to study nano structures on the atomic scale. Its laser pulses will have the strongest peak power in the world with extremely short duration and a high repetition rate, which will even allow filming of chemical reactions. The timing system uses modern FPGAs to distribute high-speed signals over optical fibers and to deliver clocks and triggers with high accuracy.

The third project was a new data acquisition board based on high-speed ADCs combined with high-performance FPGAs, to process data from segmented Ge-detectors in real-time. The aim was to improve system performance by greatly oversampling and filtering the analog signals to achieve greater effective resolution.

Finally, an innovative solution was developed to replace an aging system used at CERN and Stockholm University to test vital electronics in the Tile Calorimeters of the ATLAS detector system. The new system is entirely based on a commercial FPGA development board, where all necessary custom communication protocols were implemented in firmware to emulate obsolete hardware.

Abstract [sv]

Inom området instrumenteringsfysik bedrivs forskning och utveckling av avancerade instrument, som används inom moderna fysikexperiment. Denna avhandling beskriver fyra projekt där programmerbara kretsar (FPGA) har nyckelfunktioner för att lösa krävande instrumenteringsuppgifter.

Den första projektet beskriver utveckling och implementering av en algoritm för detektering av partikelskurar efter partikelkollisioner i LHC-experimentets ATLAS-detektor. Experimentet genererar 40 miljoner händelser per sekund, som måste analyseras i real-tid med hjälp av snabba parallella algoritmer. Resultatet avgör vilka händelser som är tillräckligt intressanta för fortsatt noggrannare analys.

Den andra projektet beskriver utvecklingen av ett system som distribuerar klock- och trigger-signaler över ett 3 kilometers experimentområde med extrem precision, i den nya röntgenlaseracceleratorn XFEL vid DESY i Hamburg. Vid XFEL kommer man utforska nanostrukturer och till och med filma molekylers kemiska reaktioner.

I den tredje projektet beskrivs utvecklingen av ett höghastighets datainsamlingssystem, för segmenterade Ge-detektorer. Genom att översampla signalen med hög hastighet kan man uppnå en bättre noggrannhet i mätningen än vad AD-omvandlarens egna upplösning medger. Detta leder i sin tur  till förbättrade systemprestanda.

Slutligen beskrivs en innovativ lösning till ett test system för den elektronik, som Stockholms universitet har levererat till ATLAS detektorn. Det nya systemet ersätter det föregående testsystemet, som är baserad på föråldrade inte längre tillgängliga komponenter. Det nya systemet är dessutom också billigare eftersom det är baserat på ett standard FPGA utvecklingskort.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 2011. 99 p.
Keyword
Instrumentation, Data acquisition, clock distribution, trigger, FPGA, PCB, LHC, ATLAS, XFEL
National Category
Other Physics Topics Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-64506 (URN)978-91-7447-416-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-15, sal FD5, AlbaNova universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider experimentEuropean X-ray Free Electron Laser
Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2011-12-20Bibliographically approved

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