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Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2011 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 401, no 10, 3305-3315 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 A degrees C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the accurate determination of PAHs with high molecular masses in this standard reference material and that the optimization of extraction conditions is essential to avoid underestimation of the PAH concentrations. The requirement is especially relevant to the human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, which is commonly used as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk presented by PAH mixtures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 401, no 10, 3305-3315 p.
Keyword [en]
Accelerated solvent extraction, ASE, Diesel particulate matter, SRM 2975, PAH, Benzo[a]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, l]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, e]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, i]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, h]pyrene
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-65506DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5446-9ISI: 000297159900026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-65506DiVA: diva2:463975
Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel and coal fly ash particulate matter: Emphasis on the carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzopyrene isomers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel and coal fly ash particulate matter: Emphasis on the carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzopyrene isomers
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67532 (URN)
Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2012-08-14Bibliographically approved
2. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Environmental Matrices: Emphasis on extraction method development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Various Environmental Matrices: Emphasis on extraction method development
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Very recently, air pollution was declared the world’s single largest environmental health risk by the World Health Organization. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better assessment of air pollution through the development of novel and exhaustive extraction methods for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are mutagenic and carcinogenic air pollutants.

The methods were developed and validated for the extraction of PAHs in both the semi-volatile fraction and particulate matter with application to samples derived from major sources of PAHs (diesel exhaust, coal fly ash and wood smoke samples). Pressurized liquid extraction was used because it allows a high sample throughput with reduced solvent requirements and analysis time compared to other traditionally used techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction.

The results presented herein show that the extraction conditions used when analyzing PAHs need to be evaluated to avoid underestimating their concentrations. This is especially true for the human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, which is often used as an indicator in the cancer risk assessments of PAHs, and the dibenzopyrene isomers due to their potentially high carcinogenicities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 2014. 56 p.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-107175 (URN)978-91-7447-964-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-09, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-09-04 Last updated: 2014-09-18Bibliographically approved

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