Reconciling measurement and modelling studies of the sources and fate of perfluorinated carboxylates
2011 (English)In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, Vol. 8, no 4, 339-354 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
This study critically evaluates the recently published measurement and modelling studies of the sources and fate of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs). It is concluded that modelling studies provide support to the 'direct hypothesis' for PFOA and PFNA (i.e. the global dominance of direct sources (mainly from fluoropolymer manufacturing)). Empirical evidence for the importance of direct sources of PFOA and PFNA is provided by PFNA : PFOA ratios and isomer profiles of PFOA in ocean water. However, homologue patterns of long-chain PFCAs in biota from remote regions suggest that indirect sources (mainly from precursor degradation) are proportionally more important for PFCAs with more than 10 carbons. Temporal data in biotic and abiotic media are reviewed and an increasing trend to 2000 is observed for all PFCAs, with discrepancies in time trends reported after that period. Some studies on temporal patterns report a levelling off or decline in the latter part of the 2000s for PFOA and PFNA, whereas others show a continual increase throughout the study period. Differences in temporal patterns result from the fact that some environments respond faster to emission changes than others and may thus be useful to elucidate the importance of direct and indirect sources to different regions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 8, no 4, 339-354 p.
Environmental Sciences Analytical Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-66861DOI: 10.1071/EN10144ISI: 000294056000002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-66861DiVA: diva2:469068
authorCount :32011-12-222011-12-212011-12-22Bibliographically approved