Simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl phosphonates, carboxylates, and sulfonates in drinking water
2011 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1218, no 37, 6388-6395 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
A trace analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous determination of perfluoroalkyl phosphonates (PFPAs, carbon chain lengths C6,8,10), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs. C5-12), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs. C4,6,8,10) in drinking water (tap water). Analytes were enriched on a mixed mode co-polymeric sorbent (C8 + quaternary amine) using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Extend C18 reversed phase column using a mobile phase gradient consisting of water, methanol, and acetonitrile containing 2 mM ammonium acetate and 5 mM 1-methyl piperidine. The mass spectrometer was operated in electrospray negative ion mode. Use of 1-methyl piperidine in the mobile phase resulted in a significant increase in instrument sensitivity for PFPAs through improved chromatographic resolution, background suppression, and increased ionization efficiency. Method detection limits for extraction of 500 mL tap water were in the ranges of 0.095-0.17 ng/L, 0.027-0.17 ng/L, and 0.014-0.052 ng/L for PFPAs. PFCAs, and PFSAs, respectively. Whole method recoveries at a spiking level of 0.5 ng/L to 500 mL HPLC grade water were 40-56%, 56-97%, and 55-77% for PFPAs, PFCAs. and PFSAs, respectively. A matrix effect (signal enhancement) was observed in the detection of PFPAs in tap water extracts, leading to calculated recoveries of 249-297% at a 0.5 ng/L spiking level. This effect resulted in an additional improvement of method sensitivity for PFPAs. To compensate for the matrix effect. PFPAs in tap water were quantified using matrix-matched and extracted calibration standards. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of drinking water collected from six European countries. PFPAs were not detected except for perfluorooctyl phosphonate (PFOPA) at close to the detection limit of 0.095 ng/L in two water samples from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Highest levels were found for perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS, 18.8 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 8.6 ng/L) in samples from Amsterdam as well as for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 8.8 ng/L) in tap water from Stockholm, Sweden.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 1218, no 37, 6388-6395 p.
PFPAs, PFCAs, PFSAs, HPLC/HRMS, Drinking water, 1-Methyl piperidine
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-66521DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.07.005ISI: 000295113600020OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-66521DiVA: diva2:469844
authorCount :32011-12-272011-12-202013-09-16Bibliographically approved