Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: Concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure
2011 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 7, 1169-1174 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs. and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low mu g g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be similar to 1 mu g day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 37, no 7, 1169-1174 p.
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs), Indoor environment, Air, Dust, Human exposure
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-66519DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.04.002ISI: 000293727900003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-66519DiVA: diva2:469847
authorCount :32011-12-272011-12-202011-12-27Bibliographically approved