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Chlorinated paraffins in indoor air and dust: Concentrations, congener patterns, and human exposure
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2011 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 7, 1169-1174 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are large production volume chemicals used in a wide variety of commercial applications. They are ubiquitous in the environment and humans. Human exposure via the indoor environment has, however, been barely investigated. In the present study 44 indoor air and six dust samples from apartments in Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for CPs. and indoor air concentrations are reported for the first time. The sumCP concentration (short chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium chain CPs (MCCPs)) in air ranged from <5-210 ng m(-3) as quantified by gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). Congener group patterns were studied using GC with electron capture negative ionization MS (GC/ECNI-MS). The air samples were dominated by the more volatile SCCPs compared to MCCPs. SumCPs were quantified by GC/EI-MS/MS in the dust samples at low mu g g(-1) levels, with a chromatographic pattern suggesting the prevalence of longer chain CPs compared to air. The median exposure to sumCPs via the indoor environment was estimated to be similar to 1 mu g day(-1) for both adults and toddlers. Adult exposure was dominated by inhalation, while dust ingestion was suggested to be more important for toddlers. Comparing these results to literature data on dietary intake indicates that human exposure to CPs from the indoor environment is not negligible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 37, no 7, 1169-1174 p.
Keyword [en]
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs), Indoor environment, Air, Dust, Human exposure
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-66519DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.04.002ISI: 000293727900003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-66519DiVA: diva2:469847
Note
authorCount :3Available from: 2011-12-27 Created: 2011-12-20 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sources, emissions, and occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sources, emissions, and occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Stockholm, Sweden
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They fulfill all of the criteria (persistent, toxic, and subject to long-range transport) for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). CPs are also under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Their presence has been shown in various environmental matrices in the industrialized parts of the world, as well as in remote regions such as the Arctic.

The aim of this thesis was to increase the limited knowledge of the presence of CPs in the environment, their sources to the environment, and the resulting human exposure. An analytical procedure for the determination of CPs in environmental samples based on gas chromatography coupled to electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been developed. GC-ECD is a relatively inexpensive instrument that is fast and easy to operate. These advantages open up the possibility for a comprehensive screening of the occurrence of CPs in the environment, including developing countries.

Furthermore, the occurrence of CPs in ambient air and in indoor air and dust was studied. Elevated CP concentrations in indoor air (<5-210 ng/m3) were observed compared to ambient air (0.7-33 ng/m3), which is indicative of the presence of indoor emission sources. Indoor air and dust concentrations were used to estimate the human exposure to CPs via the indoor environment. Comparison of the estimates to available dietary intake estimates indicated that the indoor exposure pathways are not negligible.

CP concentrations in ambient air from urban Stockholm were higher than in rural Aspvreten, Sweden. This indicates the presence of additional (emission) sources in urban areas compared to rural sites. Additionally, a seasonal variation of air concentrations was observed at both locations, suggesting temperature dependent emission sources for CPs. These observations were supported by a substance flow analysis of CPs performed for Stockholm. This study estimated the major emission sources of CPs to the Stockholm environment to be emissions from painted surfaces and in-place sealants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 2010. 53 p.
Keyword
Chlorinated paraffins, CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes, PCAs, Air, Dust, Analysis, Exposure, Emissions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-43559 (URN)978-91-7447-162-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-11-26, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript. Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript.Available from: 2010-11-03 Created: 2010-10-20 Last updated: 2011-12-27Bibliographically approved

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