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Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel and coal fly ash particulate matter: Emphasis on the carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzopyrene isomers
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012.
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67532OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-67532DiVA: diva2:470378
Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2012-08-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction
2011 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 401, no 10, 3305-3315 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 A degrees C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the accurate determination of PAHs with high molecular masses in this standard reference material and that the optimization of extraction conditions is essential to avoid underestimation of the PAH concentrations. The requirement is especially relevant to the human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, which is commonly used as an indicator of the carcinogenic risk presented by PAH mixtures.

Keyword
Accelerated solvent extraction, ASE, Diesel particulate matter, SRM 2975, PAH, Benzo[a]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, l]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, e]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, i]pyrene, Dibenzo[a, h]pyrene
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-65506 (URN)10.1007/s00216-011-5446-9 (DOI)000297159900026 ()
Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Determination of benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzopyrenes in a Chinese coal fly ash Certified Reference Material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzopyrenes in a Chinese coal fly ash Certified Reference Material
2012 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 432, 97-102 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Air pollution from coal combustion is of great concern in China because coal is the country's principal source of energy and it has been estimated that coal combustion is one of the main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions in the nation. This study reports the concentrations of 15 PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene in a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) from China. To the best of our knowledge, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene concentrations in coal fly ash particles have not previously been reported. Benzo[a]pyrene is the only one of the studied hydrocarbons whose concentration in the coal fly ash CRM had previously been certified. The concentration of this species measured in this present work was twice the certified value. This is probably because of the exhaustive accelerated solvent extraction method employed. Consecutive extractions indicated an extraction recovery in excess of 95% for benzo[a]pyrene. For the other determined PAHs, repeat extractions indicated recoveries above 90%.

Keyword
PAH, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Benzo[a]pyrene, Dibenzopyrenes, Dibenzo[a, l]pyrene, Coal fly ash
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67531 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.05.081 (DOI)000308270700011 ()
Available from: 2011-12-28 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved

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