Predicting Pore Water EPA-34 PAH Concentrations and Toxicity in Pyrogenic-Impacted Sediments Using Pyrene Content
2011 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 12, 5139-5146 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of 34 alkyl and parent PAHs (EPA-34) were measured in 335 sediment samples from 19 different sites impacted by manufactured gas plants, aluminum smelters and other pyrogenic sources. The total EPA-34 freely dissolved pore water concentration, C(pw,EPA-34), expressed as toxic units (TU) is currently considered one of the most accurate measures to assess risk at such sites; however, it is very seldom measured. With this data set, we address how accurately C(pw,EPA-34) can be estimated using limited 16 parent PAH data (EPA-16) commonly available for such sites. An exhaustive statistical analysis of the obtained data validated earlier observations that PAHs with more than 3 rings are present in similar relative abundances and their partitioning behavior typically follows Raoult's law and models developed for coal tar. As a result, sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of pyrene and other 3- and 4-ring PAT-Is exhibit good log log correlations (r(2) > 0.8) to most individual EPA-34 PAHs and also to C(pw,EPA,34). Correlations improve further by including the ratio of high to low molecular weight PAHs, as 2-ring PAT-Is exhibit the most variability in terms of their relative abundance. The most practical result of the current work is that log Cpw,EPA-34 estimated by the recommended pyrene-based estimation techniques was similarly well correlated to % survival of the benthic amphipods Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus as directly measured log Cpw, (EPA-34) values (n = 211). Incorporation of the presented C(pw,EPA-34) estimation techniques could substantially improve risk assessments and guidelines for sediments impacted by pyrogenic residues, especially when limited data are available, without requiring any extra data or measurement costs.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 45, no 12, 5139-5146 p.
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67564DOI: 10.1021/es2007935ISI: 000291422200014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-67564DiVA: diva2:470619
authorCount :42011-12-292011-12-292011-12-29Bibliographically approved