Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Typing Late prehistoric Cows and Bulls-Osteology and Genetics of Cattle at the Eketorp ringfort on the Öland Island in Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
Avdelningen för evolutionsbiologi, Evolutionsbiologiskt Centrum, EBC, Uppsala universitet.
Avdelningen för evolutionsbiologi, Evolutionsbiologiskt Centrum, EBC, Uppsala universitet.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
2011 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Human management of livestock and the presence of different breeds have been discussed in archaeozoology and animal breeding. Traditionally osteometrics has been the main tool in addressing these questions. We combine osteometrics with molecular sex identifications of 104 of 340 morphometrically analysed bones in order to investigate the use of cattle at the Eketorp ringfort on the Öland island in Sweden. The fort is dated to 300–1220/50 A.D., revealing three different building phases. In order to investigate specific patterns and shifts through time in the use of cattle the genetic data is evaluated in relation to osteometric patterns and occurrence of pathologies on cattle metapodia. Males were genotyped for a Y-chromosomal SNP in UTY19 that separates the two major haplogroups, Y1 and Y2, in taurine cattle. A subset of the samples were also genotyped for one SNP involved in coat coloration (MC1R), one SNP putatively involved in resistance to cattle plague (TLR4), and one SNP in intron 5 of the IGF-1 gene that has been associated to size and reproduction.

The results of the molecular analyses confirm that the skeletal assemblage from Eketorp is dominated by skeletal elements from females, which implies that dairying was important. Pathological lesions on the metapodia were classified into two groups; those associated with the use as draught animals and those lesions without a similar aetiology. The results show that while bulls both exhibit draught related lesions and other types of lesions, cows exhibit other types of lesions. Interestingly, a few elements from females exhibit draught related lesions. We conclude that this reflects the different use of adult female and male cattle.

Although we note some variation in the use of cattle at Eketorp between Iron Age and Medieval time we have found little evidence for the use of different types of animals for specific purposes. The use of specific (genetic) breeds seems to be a phenomenon that developed later than the Eketorp settlement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 6, no 6, 1-8 p.
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-68160DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020748.g006ISI: 000292033700015OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-68160DiVA: diva2:471999
Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Working Animals and Skeletal Lesions: Paleopathology of Cattle and Horse in Iron Age and Medieval Öland, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working Animals and Skeletal Lesions: Paleopathology of Cattle and Horse in Iron Age and Medieval Öland, Sweden
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Central to this thesis is the relationship between animal husbandry practices and the associated pathological conditions. Since bone elements from the extremities are subjected to abnormal load when animals are put to hard work this research aims to go further and interpret the prevalence of varying lesions and their connection with animal husbandry by using methods such as osteometric analysis, conventional radiograpic and bone mineral study, as well as incorporated molecular analysis.

The results show that approximately 15% of the cattle extremities at Eketorp ringfort had some kind of skeletal lesion. Cattle metatarsals exhibited a higher frequency of lesions than metacarpals. Skeletal lesions connected to draught use were more frequently recorded on bone elements from male than from female cattle. The anterior phalanges 1-2 had a higher occurence of lesions than the posterior elements. In addition, there was a significant correlation between larger sized animals and lesions. Osteological measurements were also investigated using molecular sex identification. Several measurements in both fragmented and complete metapodials proved useful in separating cows from oxen or bulls.

Conventional radiographics were used on cattle metapodials from Eketorp ringfort to investigate the age structure in slaughtered cattle over 3 years of age. In phase III more male cattle were slaughtered before 8 years of age which could reflect the character of the site. The bone density analysis showed that modern cattle metapodials had higher values than the archaeological specimens which made intepretation of post-depositional changes problematic. The molecular analysis did not show any selected breed or specific type of animal. All but two of the Eketorp cattle belonged to haplogroup Y2 which is common in Southern Europe. The Y1 haplogroup (one in phase II and one in phase III) is common in Western and Northern Europe. The results point to that the Ölandic cattle population was homogeneous over time. The results from thirty-four bone elements show that twenty-five bones belonged to animals with red or light coat coloration and nine of uncertain, possibly partly black colour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm Univeristy, 2012. 69 p.
Series
Theses and papers in osteoarchaeology, ISSN 1652-4098 ; 7
Keyword
Skeletal lesions, draught use of cattle, sacrificed horses, Iron Age, Middle Ages, Eketorp ringfort, Skedemosse wetland, Öland, sweden
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
Osteoarchaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-82619 (URN)978-91-7447-603-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-19, föreläsningssalen, Botaniska institutionen, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Accepted. Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-20 Last updated: 2012-11-22Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Telldahl, YlvaStorå, Jan
By organisation
Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies
In the same journal
PLoS ONE
Humanities

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 75 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf