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Genetics of diapause in the comma butterfly Polygonia c-album
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4195-8920
2011 (English)In: Physiological entomology (Print), ISSN 0307-6962, E-ISSN 1365-3032, Vol. 36, no 1, 8-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation can be better understood by studying the genetic background of life-history decisions. The sex chromosomes host genes for many population differences in the Lepidoptera and therefore the inheritance of diapause determination in the butterfly Polygonia c-album may be hypothesized to be sex-linked. In the present study, Polygonia c-album (L.) from Spain and Sweden and hybrid offspring are raised under an LD 17 : 7 h photocycle that induces most pure Swedish individuals to develop into the diapausing dark morph and most pure Spanish individuals into the light and directly-developing morph. If inheritance of the daylength threshold for diapause is X-linked, as is known to be the case for host-plant preferences, females should follow the developmental path of their male parents' populations. However, female hybrids instead have a diapause propensity intermediate to that of their parental stocks and, consequentially, diapause determination is not X-linked. However, male hybrids eclose as the diapausing morph to a higher extent than females and, moreover, this pattern is more pronounced in the Spanish female x Swedish male cross than in the reciprocal cross. Hence, it is concluded that the genetic determination of the critical daylength for diapause is mainly autosomal but with some influence of sex-linked genes and/or parental effects, possibly as an effect of the importance of protandry for males. Such sex effects could provide a starting point for the evolution of population differences inherited on the sex chromosomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 36, no 1, 8-13 p.
Keyword [en]
Autosomal inheritance, intraspecific hybridization, parental effect, photoperiod, seasonal polyphenism, sex effect, sex linkage
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-67901DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.2010.00756.xISI: 000287790900002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-67901DiVA: diva2:472082
Note
authorCount :2Available from: 2012-01-03 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Life-history consequenses of host plant choice in the comma butterfly
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-history consequenses of host plant choice in the comma butterfly
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is much evidence that herbivory is a key innovation for the tremendous success of insect. In this thesis I have investigated different aspects of host plant utilization and phenotypic plasticity using the polyphagous comma butterfly, Polygonia c-album. Even though external conditions affect a phenotypic plastic response, the outcome is often influenced by a genetic background which may differ among populations. In Paper I we suspected the genetic background to seasonal polymorphism to be X-linked. However, results from interspecific hybridization between two populations suggested that diapause response is instead inherited in a mainly autosomally additive fashion, with a possible influence of sexual antagonism on males. In Paper II we showed that female oviposition preference is not a plastic response influenced by larval experience, but has a genetic background coupled to host plant suitability. Further, there is a strong individual correlation between larval host plant acceptance and female host plant specificity (Paper III). We believe this to be a larval feed-back genetically linked to female host specificity: offspring to ‘choosy’ specialist mothers benefit by remaining on the original host while offspring to less discriminating generalist mothers should risk inspecting the surroundings, thus compensating for potential poor female choice. In the larval mid-gut, genes are differentially expressed depending on host plant diet (Paper IV). Therefore, we expected to find fitness consequences of host plant switch. However, although growth rate was affected in a few treatments, larvae were generally surprisingly good at adjusting to new diets (Paper V). To conclude, host plant choice in both female and larval life stage is connected to performance. Combined with increased understanding about the plastic response to diet intake and seasonal polymorphism we have gained further insights into the processes of local adaptations and speciation in the Lepidoptera.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2012. 36 p.
Keyword
Nymphalidae, voltinism, larval performance, Hopkins’ Host Selection Principle, GeneFishing, real-time qPCR, Urtica dioica, Salix cinerea, Betula pubescens, Ulmus glabra, Ribes uva-crispa.
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-68076 (URN)978-91-7447-432-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-10, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Submitted Manuscript; Paper 5: ManuscriptAvailable from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-02 Last updated: 2014-10-28Bibliographically approved

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