Stove performance, characteristics, and quantities of gaseous and particulate emissions were determined for two different pellet stoves, varying fuel load, pellet diameter, and chimney draft. This approach aimed at covering variations in emissions from stoves in use today. The extensive measurement campaign included CO, NO(x), organic gaseous carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PM(tot)) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. At high load, most emissions were similar. For stove B, operating at high residual oxygen and solely with primary air, the emissions of PM,, and particle numbers were higher while the particles were smaller. Lowering the fuel load, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased dramatically for stove A, which operated continuously also at lower fuel loads. On the other hand for stove B, which had intermittent operation at lower fuel loads, the emissions of hydrocarbons increased only slightly lowering the fuel load, while CO emissions increased sharply, due to high emissions at the end of the combustion cycle. Beside methane, dominating VOCs were ethene, acetylene, and benzene and the emissions of VOC varied in the range 1.1-42 mg/MJ(fuel). PAH emissions (2-340 mu g/MJ(fuel)) were generally dominated by phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The PM(tot) values (15-45 mg/MJ(fuel)) were in all cases dominated by fine particles with mass median diameters in the range 100-200 nm, peak mobility diameters of 50-85 nm, and number concentrations in the range 4 x 10(13) to 3 x 10(14) particles/MJ(fuel). During high load conditions, the particulate matter was totally dominated by inorganic particles at 15-25 mg/MJ(fuel) consisting of potassium, sodium, sulfur, and chlorine, in the form of K(2)SO(4), K(3)Na(SO(4))(2), and KCl. The study shows that differences in operation and modulation principles for the tested pellet stoves, relevant for appliances in use today, will affect the performance and emissions significantly, although with lower scattering in the present study compared to compiled literature data.
2011. Vol. 25, 307-314 p.