Self-reported drug use and mortality among a nationwide sample of Swedish conscripts - A 35-year follow-up
2011 (English)In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 118, no 2-3, 383-390 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background: Drug users in clinical samples have elevated mortality compared with the general population, but little is known about mortality among users of drugs within the general population. Aim: To determine whether self-reported use of illicit drugs and non-prescribed sedatives/hypnotics among young men in the general population is related to mortality. Methods: A 35-year follow-up of 48 024 Swedish men, born 1949-1951 and conscripted in 1969/1970, among whom drug use was reported by 8767 subjects. Cross-record linkage was effected between individual data from the Swedish conscription and other national registers. Deaths and causes of death/1000 person-years were calculated. Cox PH regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for death with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). An HR was calculated for users of different dominant drugs at conscription compared with non-users by age interval, after adjusting for confounders and hospitalisation with a drug-related diagnosis. Results: Drug users showed elevated mortality (HR 1.61, p < 0.05) compared with non-users. After adjusting for risk factors, users of stimulants (HR 4.41, p < 0.05), cannabis (HR 4.27, p < 0.05), opioids (HR 2.83, p > 0.05), hallucinogens (HR 3.88, p < 0.05) and unspecified drugs (HR 4.62, p < 0.05) at conscription with a drug-related diagnosis during follow-up showed an HR approaching the standard mortality ratios in clinical samples. Among other drug users (95.5%), only stimulant users showed statistically significantly increased mortality (HR 1.96, p < 0.05). Conclusions: In a life-time perspective, drug use among young men in the general population was a marker of premature death, even a long time after exposure.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 118, no 2-3, 383-390 p.
Longitudinal study, Risk factors, Drug use, Inpatient care, Mortality, Epidemiology
Substance Abuse Psychiatry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-70885DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.04.025ISI: 000296173800041OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-70885DiVA: diva2:483408
authorCount :52012-01-252012-01-242012-01-25Bibliographically approved