The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities
2012 (English)In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 107, 530-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Aims To estimate the effect on violence of small changes in closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales, and to assess whether a possible effect is symmetrical. Design, setting, and participants A quasi-experimental design drawing on data from 18 Norwegian cities that have changed (extended or restricted) the closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales. All changes were <= 2 hours. Measurements Closing hourswere measured in terms of the latest permitted hour of on-premise trading, ranging from 1 a. m. to 3 a. m. The outcome measure comprised police-reported assaults that occurred in the city centre between 10 p. m. and 5 a. m. at weekends. Assaults outside the city centre during the same time window should not be affected by changes in closing hours but function as a proxy for potential confounders, and was thus included as a control variable. The data spanned the period Q1 2000-Q3 2010, yielding 774 observations. Findings Outcomes from main analyses suggested that each 1-hour extension of closing hours was associated with a statistically significant increase of 4.8 assaults (95% CI 2.60, 6.99) per 100 000 inhabitants per quarter (i.e. an increase of about 16%). Findings indicate that the effect is symmetrical. These findings were consistent across three different modelling techniques. Conclusion In Norway, each additional 1-hour extension to the opening times of premises selling alcohol is associated with a 16% increase in violent crime.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 107, 530-537 p.
Alcohol policy, closing hours, natural experiments, Norway, time-series analyses, violence
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-72475DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03643.xISI: 000299997000010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-72475DiVA: diva2:499197