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Resin acids in commercial products and the work environment of Swedish wood pellets production: Analytical methodology, occurrence and exposure
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aims of the work this thesis is based upon were to develop convenient analytical procedures for determining resin acids in biological and environmental matrices, and apply them to enhance understanding of the occurrence, exposure to and uptake by exposed individuals of resin acids. Particular focus has been on the workplace environment of the Swedish wood pellets industry. Sample extraction procedures and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) methodologies were developed for measuring resin acids in dust, skin and urine samples. Chromatographic separation of abietic (AA) and pimaric acid was achieved by using a polar-embedded C12 stationary phase. The HPLC/ESI-MS method avoids undesirable oxidation of AA, which was found to occur during the derivatisation step in the standard MDHS 83/2 gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) methodology, leading to false observations of both AA and the oxidation product 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO). Personal exposures to resin acids in the Swedish wood pellet production industry were found to be lower, on average, than the British Occupational Exposure Limit for rosin (50 µg/m3). The oxidised resin acid 7-OXO, was detected in both dust and skin samples indicating the presence of allergenic resin acids. A correlation between air and post-shift urinary concentrations of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), and a trend towards an increase in urinary 7-OXO during work shifts, were also observed. Whether the increase in 7-OXO was due to direct uptake or metabolism of other resin acids cannot be concluded from the results. An efficient HPLC/UV methodology with diode-array detection was developed for screening commercial products for rosin that could be used in laboratories lacking mass spectrometers. Very high concentrations of free resin acids were detected in depilatory wax strips using the method.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University , 2012. , 60 p.
Keyword [en]
Rosin, resin acids, HPLC/ESI-MS, air sampling, urine samples, wood pellets, wood dust
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74448ISBN: 978-91-7447-449-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-74448DiVA: diva2:509655
Public defence
2012-04-27, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
At the time of doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Submitted.Available from: 2012-04-03 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2012-03-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exposure to Wood Dust, Resin Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds During Production of Wood Pellets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposure to Wood Dust, Resin Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds During Production of Wood Pellets
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 5, 296-304 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The main aim of this study was to investigate exposure to airborne substances that are potentially harmful to health during the production of wood pellets, including wood dust, monoterpenes, and resin acids, and as an indicator of diesel exhaust nitrogen dioxide. In addition, area measurements were taken to assess background exposure levels of these substances, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon monoxide. Measurements were taken at four wood pellet production plants from May 2004 to April 2005. Forty-four workers participated in the study, and a total of 68 personal measurements were taken to determine personal exposure to wood dust (inhalable and total dust), resin acids, monoterpenes, and nitrogen dioxide. In addition, 42 measurements of nitrogen dioxide and 71 measurements of total dust, resin acids, monoterpenes, VOCs, and carbon monoxide were taken to quantify their indoor area concentrations. Personal exposure levels to wood dust were high, and a third of the measured levels of inhalable dust exceeded the Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m 3 . Parallel measurements of inhalable and total dust indicated that the former were, on average, 3.2 times higher than the latter. The data indicate that workers at the plants are exposed to significant amounts of the resin acid 7-oxodehydroabietic acid in the air, an observation that has not been recorded previously at wood processing and handling plants. The study also found evidence of exposure to dehydroabietic acid, and exposure levels for resin acids approached 74% of the British OEL for colophony, set at 50 μg/m 3 . Personal exposure levels to monoterpenes and nitrogen dioxide were low. Area sampling measurements indicated that aldehydes and terpenes were the most abundant VOCs, suggesting that measuring personal exposure to aldehydes might be of interest. Carbon monoxide levels were under the detection limit in all area measurements. High wood dust exposure levels are likely to have implications for worker health; therefore, it is important to reduce exposure to wood dust in this industry.

National Category
Analytical Chemistry Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74451 (URN)10.1080/15459620801957225 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-03-12 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tape-stripping as a method for measuring dermal exposure to resin acids during wood pellet production
2008 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, 345-352 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific method for quantifying dermal exposure to the resin acids 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-OXO), dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), abietic acid (AA), and pimaric acid (PA). In addition the method was evaluated in occupational settings during production of wood pellets. Tape-strips were spiked with the substances to evaluate the recovery of the acids from the tape. The removal efficiency of the tape was assessed by tape-stripping a specified area on a glass plate spiked with resin acids. The recovery of the acids from human skin in vivo was evaluated by applying acids in methanol onto the skin of volunteers. Occupational dermal exposure to the resin acids was assessed by tape-stripping the skin of workers involved in the production of wood pellets. The resin acids were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The limit of detection was 15 pg (7-OXO), 150 pg (DHAA), 285 pg (AA) and 471 pg (PA) per injection. The recovery from spiked tapes was in general 100%. The removal efficiency of the tape was 48–101%. Recovery tests from human skin in vivo showed a mean recovery of 27%. Quantifiable amounts of resin acids were observed on four different skin areas with an increase in exposure during a work shift. This study shows that occupational dermal exposure to resin acids can be assessed by tape-stripping and quantified by LC-MS.

National Category
Analytical Chemistry Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74450 (URN)10.1039/b719152a (DOI)000253908800009 ()
Available from: 2012-03-12 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3.
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4. HPLC/neg-ESI-MS determination of resin acids in urine from Swedish wood pellets production plants workers and correlation with air concentrations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>HPLC/neg-ESI-MS determination of resin acids in urine from Swedish wood pellets production plants workers and correlation with air concentrations
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2012 (English)In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74452 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-12 Created: 2012-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. SPE and HPLC/UV of resin acids in colophonium-containing products
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SPE and HPLC/UV of resin acids in colophonium-containing products
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2008 (English)In: Journal of Separation Science, Vol. 31, no 15, 2784-2790 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new method, involving SPE and HPLC/UV diode-array detection (DAD), was developed for the quantification of colophonium components in different consumer products, such as cosmetics. Colophonium is a common cause of contact dermatitis since its components can oxidize into allergens on exposure to air. Three different resin acids were used as markers for native and oxidized colophonium, abietic acid (AbA), dehydroabietic acid (DeA), and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-O-DeA). The SPE method, utilizing a mixed-mode hydrophobic and anion exchange retention mechanism, was shown to yield very clean extracts. The use of a urea-embedded C12 HPLC stationary phase improved the separation of the resin acids compared to common C18. Concentrations higher than 2 mg/g of both AbA and DeA were detected in wax strips. In this product also 7-O-DeA, a marker for oxidized colophonium, was detected at a level of 28 μg/g. The LODs were in the range of 7–19 μg/g and the LOQs 22–56 μg/g. The method is simple to use and can be applied on many types of technical products, not only cosmetics. For the first time, a method for technical products was developed, which separates AbA from pimaric acid

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2008
Keyword
Allergic contact dermatitis;Colophonium;HPLC/UV;Resin acids;SPE
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-17516 (URN)10.1002/jssc.200800210 (DOI)000258936700004 ()
Available from: 2009-01-16 Created: 2009-01-16 Last updated: 2012-03-13Bibliographically approved

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