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Levels of organohalogen compounds in White-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in relation to reproduction impairment in the Bothnian Sea
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is in the top of the marine food chain and its existence in Sweden has been threatened several times. The species succeeded to recover from the deep decline in the 1970s when the exposure to persistent organic pollutants influenced the reproduction negatively. The species is today spread over the country but is still seen as a near threatened species. Even though a recovery has occurred there is still some reproduction problems seen in the region of the south Bothnian Sea. The work presented in this thesis has focused on expanding the knowledge of bromine and chlorine containing compounds in the white-tailed sea eagles and to correlate the levels found with the reproduction impairment in the region of south Bothnian Sea. Eggs and blood from nestlings collected from different subpopulations, from the Arctic (Lapland) in the north to the Baltic Proper in the south of Sweden, have been studied for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), brominated flame retardants, methoxylated- (MeO-), and hydroxylated- (OH)-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Some of the investigated compounds have been compared with levels found in a unique white-tailed sea eagle egg collected in the Baltic Proper in 1941. The pattern and levels of PCDD and PCDF in 1941 were similar and in the same range as found today around the same area. Furthermore, the human activity has raised the PCB levels in the white-tailed sea eagles with over 120 times over the last 60 years but these levels are still much lower than in the 1970s. In conclusion none of the investigated compounds in this thesis could be correlated to the reduced reproduction seen in the south Bothnian Sea but the levels of PCDD, PCDF, non-ortho­-PCB and OH-PBDE are high in the populations inhabiting the Baltic Sea and are in the same range as found to cause different biological responses in other avian species worldwide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2012. , 45 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-74634ISBN: 978-91-7447-478-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-74634DiVA: diva2:510836
Public defence
2012-05-04, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: In press. Paper 3: Submitted. Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-04-12 Created: 2012-03-19 Last updated: 2012-04-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Levels of brominated flame retardants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles breeding in different regions of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Levels of brominated flame retardants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles breeding in different regions of Sweden
2010 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 1, 238-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Forty-four unhatched eggs from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), collected in four regions in Sweden in 1992–2005, were analysed for contents of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and naturally occurring methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs). Two freshwater areas—Lapland in the arctic zone (LAP) and inland lakes in central and southern Sweden (INL), and two brackish marine areas in the Baltic Sea—the south Bothnian Sea (SB) and the Baltic Proper (BP)—were chosen for comparison of the concentrations and congener distributions in white-tailed sea eagles with different diet and migratory patterns. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g lipid weight (l.w.)) of ∑5PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154) were 720 (LAP), 1500 (INL), 4 100 (SB) and 4 300 (BP), whereas BDE-209 was not detectable in any of the samples. The GM concentrations for HBCD content in LAP, INL, SB and BP were 60, 90, 150 and 140 ng/g l.w., respectively, whereas the corresponding values for BB-153 were 20, 30, 100 and 120 ng/g l.w. In general, the eggs from all four regions demonstrated similar patterns of PBDE congeners, with concentrations in descending order of BDE-47, -100, -99, -153 and -154. The ∑3-MeO-BDEs (6-MeO-BDE47, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 5-Cl-6-MeO-BDE47) for these same regions (as above) were 80, 40, 340 and 240 ng/g l.w., respectively. ∑3-MeO-BDEs for LAP and INL (freshwaters) were significantly different, whereas those for SB and BP were not. The presence of MeO-PBDEs in all of the inland samples indicates that there is an as-yet-unidentified source of these compounds in the freshwater ecosystem. Between the two more contaminated subpopulations from the Baltic Sea coast, SB showed significantly lower productivity than BP, but no correlation was found between productivity and PBDE, PBB and HBCD at the concentrations found in this study.

Keyword
White-tailed sea eagle, Predatory birds, Eggs, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Polybrominated biphenyl, Hexabromocyclododecane, Methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Reproduction
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-53268 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.09.042 (DOI)
Available from: 2011-01-21 Created: 2011-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
2. Comparison of organohalogen compounds in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941 with five eggs from 1996 to 2001
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of organohalogen compounds in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941 with five eggs from 1996 to 2001
Show others...
2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 3, 286-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eggs laid by white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), one in 1941 and five eggs between 1996 and 2001, all from the same geographical region of the Baltic Sea, were screened for organohalogen substances. The 1941 egg contained hexachlorobenzene (HCB), but did not contain either of the pesticides hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or p,p'-DDT, nor any metabolites of the latter. In contrast, the more recent eggs (REs) contained all of these compounds. Of the seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analyzed (CB28, -52, -101, -118, -138/-163, -153 and 180), only the more highly chlorinated congeners were detected in the 1941 sample, with CB153 followed by CB180 showing the highest concentrations. All eggs demonstrated the same congener pattern with respect to the more highly chlorinated PCBs, but concentrations were approximately 70-230 times higher in the REs. All of the polychlorinated-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) congeners analyzed were detected in the eggs, with the dominant congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (1250pg/gl.w. in 1941 and 1540pg/gl.w. (GM) for the REs, respectively). None of the other congeners exceeded 400pg/gl.w., and the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF were all lower in the REs. None of five congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) found in the REs was detected in the egg from 1941. The three methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) analyzed were found at similar levels and with a similar congener pattern in REs as in the egg from 1941. In conclusion, this study has shown the absence of DDE and PBDE and the presence of HCB and PCBs in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941, and a strong increase of PCBs, DDE and PBDE in white-tailed sea eagle eggs from the same area in 1996-2001. The MeO-BDEs were found in similar concentrations in the analyzed eggs. The 1941 sample shows substantial concentrations of PCDD/Fs, noteworthy in the same magnitude as in the recent samples, illustrating the historical and recent exposure of these compounds.

Keyword
White-tailed sea eagle, Predatory bird, Eggs, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/Fs
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75006 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.039 (DOI)000304794000004 ()
Available from: 2012-04-03 Created: 2012-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non­-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non­-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea
Show others...
(English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75007 (URN)
Available from: 2012-04-03 Created: 2012-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated/methoxylated analogues in serum from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings from four different regions of Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated/methoxylated analogues in serum from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings from four different regions of Sweden
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Applied Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75008 (URN)
Available from: 2012-04-03 Created: 2012-04-03 Last updated: 2012-04-04Bibliographically approved

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