Timing of Male Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis in a Butterfly – Different Dynamics under Direct or Diapause Development
2012 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 38, no 5, 584-591 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The life history traits and behavior of the butterfly are well-known, as the species is often used as a model organism for evolutionary and ecological studies. The species has two or more generations per year in the major part of its temperate distribution, and as different selection pressures affect the different generations, both behavioral and physiological seasonal polyphenisms have been shown previously. Here, we explored the dynamics of male sex pheromone production. The two generations are shown to have significantly different scent compositions early in life; the direct developers-who have shorter time for pupal development-need the first 24 hr of adult life after eclosion to synthesize the sex pheromone citral (geranial and neral 1:1)-whereas the diapausing individuals who have spent several months in the pupal stage eclose with adult scent composition. Resource allocation and biosynthesis also were studied in greater detail by feeding butterflies C-13 labeled glucose either in the larval or adult stage, and recording incorporation into geranial, neral, and other volatiles produced. Results demonstrate that the pheromone synthesized by newly eclosed adult males is based on materials ingested in the larval stage, and that adult butterflies are able to synthesize the pheromone components geranial and neral and the related alcohols also from adult intake of glucose. In summary, our study shows that time-stress changes the timing in biosynthesis of the complete pheromone between generations, and underpins the importance of understanding resource allocation and the physiological basis of life history traits.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012. Vol. 38, no 5, 584-591 p.
Aphrodisiac, Citral, Green-veined white butterfly, Polyphenism, Sex pheromone
Ecology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject Animal Ecology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75700DOI: 10.1007/s10886-012-0126-6ISI: 000304208300016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-75700DiVA: diva2:523628
Author count: 4;2012-04-252012-04-252014-10-28Bibliographically approved