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Timing of Male Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis in a Butterfly –  Different Dynamics under Direct or Diapause Development
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7104-1406
KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science. (Ecological Chemistry Group)
KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science. (Ecological Chemistry Group)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4719-487X
2012 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 38, no 5, 584-591 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The life history traits and behavior of the butterfly are well-known, as the species is often used as a model organism for evolutionary and ecological studies. The species has two or more generations per year in the major part of its temperate distribution, and as different selection pressures affect the different generations, both behavioral and physiological seasonal polyphenisms have been shown previously. Here, we explored the dynamics of male sex pheromone production. The two generations are shown to have significantly different scent compositions early in life; the direct developers-who have shorter time for pupal development-need the first 24 hr of adult life after eclosion to synthesize the sex pheromone citral (geranial and neral 1:1)-whereas the diapausing individuals who have spent several months in the pupal stage eclose with adult scent composition. Resource allocation and biosynthesis also were studied in greater detail by feeding butterflies C-13 labeled glucose either in the larval or adult stage, and recording incorporation into geranial, neral, and other volatiles produced. Results demonstrate that the pheromone synthesized by newly eclosed adult males is based on materials ingested in the larval stage, and that adult butterflies are able to synthesize the pheromone components geranial and neral and the related alcohols also from adult intake of glucose. In summary, our study shows that time-stress changes the timing in biosynthesis of the complete pheromone between generations, and underpins the importance of understanding resource allocation and the physiological basis of life history traits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012. Vol. 38, no 5, 584-591 p.
Keyword [en]
Aphrodisiac, Citral, Green-veined white butterfly, Polyphenism, Sex pheromone
National Category
Ecology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75700DOI: 10.1007/s10886-012-0126-6ISI: 000304208300016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-75700DiVA: diva2:523628
Note

Author count: 4;

Available from: 2012-04-25 Created: 2012-04-25 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Life history evolution in a bivoltine butterfly
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life history evolution in a bivoltine butterfly
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Evolution is not always straight-forward, as selection pressures may differ between different generations of the same species. This thesis focuses on the evolution of life history of the model species, the Green-veined White butterfly Pieris napi. In central Sweden P. napi has two generations per year. The directly developing summer generation is short-lived and time stressed, compared to the diapausing generation.

In paper I polyandry, defined as female mating rate, was shown to differ between generations but was unaffected by environmental factors. In paper II both males and females of the direct developing generation were shown to eclose more immature than the diapausing generation, indicating larval time constraints. Consistent with this, diapausing males mated sooner than direct developers. Directly developing females, however, mated sooner after eclosion than diapausing females, even though they are more immature. This was shown to negatively affect fecundity, but can pay off when the season is short.

Paper III shows that directly developing males have less sex pheromones at eclosion than diapausers, and the differences in sex pheromone production is consistent with developmental time constraints and the differences in mating system.

In P. napi and other polyandrous butterflies, males transfer a large, nutritious ejaculate at mating. Large ejaculates confer advantages under sperm competition, but as they are costly, males should adjust ejaculate size to the risk of sperm competition. In paper IV we found that males transfer on average 20% larger spermatophores under high male competition than at low competition. The same effect could be observed if we added male sex pheromone to the air in a mating cage without male-male competition. Paper V shows that males of the two generations respond differently to an increase in male-male competition, with diapausing males transferring larger spermatophores than direct developers at high male competition risk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 2012. 24 p.
Keyword
Bivoltine, Diapause, Lepidoptera, Life history, Mating system, Pheromone, Polyphenism, Population density, Sexual selection, Sperm competition
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Animal Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81399 (URN)978-91-7447-592-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-07, Magnelisalen,Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defence the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Submitted manuscript.

Available from: 2012-11-15 Created: 2012-10-18 Last updated: 2014-10-28Bibliographically approved

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