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Reversible lysine acetylation regulates the activity of human glycine n-acyltransferase-like 2 (hGLYATL2): Implications for production of glycine-conjugated signalling molecules
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 287, no 20, 16158-16167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins, and regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, cell migration, ageing and inflammation. Proteomic studies have identified numerous lysine-acetylated proteins in human and mouse models (Kim et al, (2006) Mol. Cell. 23, 607-618). One family of proteins identified in this study was the murine glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT) enzymes, which are acetylated on lysine 19 (K19). Lysine 19 is a conserved residue in human glycine N-acyltransferase-like 2 (hGLYATL2) and in several other species, showing that this residue may be important for enzyme function. Mutation of lysine 19 (K19) in recombinant hGLYATL2 to glutamine (K19Q) and arginine (K19R) resulted in a 50-80% lower production of N-oleoyl glycine and N-arachidonoylglycine, indicating that lysine 19 is important for enzyme function. LC/MS/MS confirmed that K19 is not acetylated in wild-type hGLYATL2, indicating that K19 requires to be deacetylated for full activity. The hGLYATL2 enzyme conjugates medium- and long-chain saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoA esters to glycine, resulting in the production of N-oleoyl glycine and also N-arachidonoyl glycine. N-oleoyl glycine and N-arachidonoyl glycine are structurally and functionally related to endocannabinoids and have been identified as signalling molecules that regulate functions like the perception of pain, body temperature, and also have anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, acetylation of lysine(s) in hGLYATL2 regulate the enzyme activity, thus linking post-translational modification of proteins with the production of biological signalling molecules, the N-acyl glycines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 287, no 20, 16158-16167 p.
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Biochemistry; Molecular Biology; Cell Biology
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75627DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.347260ISI: 000304030900008OAI: diva2:523858
Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2012-10-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Biosynthesis and physiological functions of N-acyl amino acids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biosynthesis and physiological functions of N-acyl amino acids
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

N-acyl amino acids are lipid signalling molecules that have recently been identified in biological systems. These lipids are structurally related to the endocannabinoids, although they do not activate cannabinoid receptors. In 2001, N-arachidonoyl glycine was the first signalling lipid in this group to be identified in bovine and rat brain and since then, about 50 novel N-acyl amino acids have been identified in mammalian systems. These N-acyl amino acids are involved in regulating pain processes, are anti-inflammatory and regulate body temperature, but the metabolic pathways for production and metabolism remain poorly understood.

This thesis focussed on the identification of pathways for production and regulation of N-acyl amino acids, in particular N-acyl glycines, and in identifying physiological functions for N-acyl amino acids (particularly N-acyl taurines). Our results identified an enzymatic pathway for production of N-acyl glycines in human and we identified that the human glycine N-acyltransferase-like 2 (hGLYATL2) conjugates (amidates) medium- and long-chain, saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoAs with glycine, to produce N-acyl glycines, with the preferential production of N-oleoyl glycine. Furthermore, we have characterized two other members of the gene family of glycine N-acyltransferases (GLYATs) in human, the hGLYATL1 and hGLYATL3 that may be involved in the production of N-acyl amino acids.

As N-acyl glycines are bioactive signalling molecules, it is likely their production requires a rapid on/off switch. The post-translational modification of proteins can result in enzyme regulation, without the need for transcriptional regulation. We have identified that hGLYATL2 is regulated by acetylation/deacetylation on lysine 19, and using mutation analysis, we show that deacetylation of lysine 19 is important for full enzyme activity.

The physiological functions of N-acyl amino acids are not well studied to date. In this thesis, we have identified that N-arachidonoyl taurine and N-oleoyl taurine trigger insulin secretion by increasing the calcium flux in pancreatic b-cells via the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1).

This work on N-acyl amino acids has led us to identify new pathways and physiological functions for these lipid signalling molecules, which advances our knowledge of the importance of these lipids in mammalian systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, 2012. 62 p.
National Category
Cell Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Genetics
Research subject
Molecular Genetics
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-75766 (URN)978-91-7447-523-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-01, sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 C, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)

At the time of doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows:Paper 2: Accepted; Paper 3: Manuscript; Paper 4; Manuscript

Available from: 2012-05-10 Created: 2012-04-26 Last updated: 2013-04-09Bibliographically approved

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Waluk, Dominik P.
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