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Capping Efficiency of Various Carbonaceous and Mineral Materials for In Situ Remediation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Contaminated Marine Sediments: Sediment-to-Water Fluxes and Bioaccumulation in Boxcosm Tests
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
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2012 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 6, 3343-3351 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The efficiency of thin-layer capping in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene, and octachlorostyrene was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials was tested using a three-factor experimental design. The cap materials consisted of a passive material (coarse or fine limestone or a marine clay) and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants. The cap thickness and the type of active material were significant factors, whereas no statistically significant effects of the type of passive material were observed. Sediment-to-water fluxes and bioaccumulation by the two test species, the surface-dwelling Nassarius nitidus and the deep-burrowing Nereis spp., decreased with increased cap thickness and with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a similar to 90% reduction of fluxes and bioaccumulation was achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC. Small increases in fluxes with increased survival of Nereis spp. indicated that bioturbation by Nereis spp. affected the fluxes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 46, no 6, 3343-3351 p.
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-76143DOI: 10.1021/es203528vISI: 000301630200040OAI: diva2:525973
7Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-05-09 Last updated: 2013-10-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. In situ remediation of contaminated sediments using thin-layer capping: efficiency in contaminant retention and ecological implications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ remediation of contaminated sediments using thin-layer capping: efficiency in contaminant retention and ecological implications
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) often reside in sediments sorbed to particles, most tightly to particles with high content of organic carbon. If persistent, such pollutants can accumulate in the sediment for many years and constitute a contamination risk for sediment-living organisms and organisms at higher trophic levels, including humans.

Since traditional remediation techniques are associated with complications (e.g. release of contaminants during dredging operations, disturbance of benthic faunal communities), or constraints (handling of large amounts of contaminated sediment and water, limitations due to depth and size of the area, high costs), there is a need for new alternative methods.

In situ remediation through thin-layer capping (a few centimeter cover) with a sorbing material such as activated carbon (AC) has been proposed as an alternative remediation method. Compared to traditional remediation techniques, AC amendment in a thin layer means less material handling and lower costs and is assumed to be less disruptive to benthic communities. The objectives of this thesis were to investigate the ecological effects from thin layer capping as well as the efficiency in contaminant retention.

Thin layer capping amended with AC proved to reduce availability of HOCs to the tested organisms, the gastropod Nassarius nitidus (Paper II), the clam Abra nitida (Paper III) and to polychaete worms  (Paper II and III). The remediation technique also decreased the sediment-to-water fluxes of the contaminants (Paper II and III).

However, AC amended thin-layer capping was also found to cause negative biological effects. In laboratory studies with only a few species the negative effects were minor, or difficult to discern with the endpoints used (Paper II and III). In a larger multi-species mesocosm (boxcore) study, on the other hand, the negative effects were more prominent (Paper I) and in a large scale field study the benthic community was found to be profoundly disturbed by the AC amendment, with the effects persisting or even worsening ca one year (14 months) post amendment (Paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 2013. 34 p.
Contaminated Sediment Remediation, Activated Carbon, Benthic Community, Ecological Effects, Stress, Resilience, Contaminant Sequestration, Capping Efficiency, Bioavailability, Bioaccumulation, Sediment-to-water fluxes
National Category
Biological Sciences Environmental Sciences Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Research subject
Marine Ecotoxicology
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-94845 (URN)978-91-7447-795-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-15, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Swedish Research Council, 210-2007-282Formas, 210-2007-282Vinnova, 210-2007-282

At the time of the doctoral defence the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript; Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-10-24 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2014-06-27Bibliographically approved

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Samuelsson, Göran S.Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
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