Decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in Swedish background air
2012 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 86, no 3, 264-269 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Decabromodiphenyl ethane (DPDPE) is a flame retardant that has been on the market for more than 20 years and is used as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). Environmental data on DPDPE are scarce but for BDE-209, studies have shown that long-range transport in the atmosphere leads to contamination of remote regions. Given their similar physical-chemical properties, we hypothesized that this is also true for DPDPE. In this study we explored the European continent as a source for DBDPE by collecting air samples at a back-ground location in southern Sweden. Twelve samples with stable air mass back trajectories over the 24 h sampling period were analysed. BDE-209 and 5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also included in the study. The concentration ranges of DBDPE and BDE-209 were similar, 0.077-7.9 and 0.093-1.8 pg m(-3) air, respectively. The highest concentrations were detected when the air originated from the European continent and the lowest during periods with rather stagnant air over southern Scandinavia. The concentrations of DBDPE and BDE-209 did not co-vary, indicating that there are different major sources of the two compounds. In air, the compounds measured in this study are predominantly associated with particles. PAHs in the atmosphere are known to originate primarily from combustion processes and their concentrations were highly correlated with several measures of atmospheric particle concentration, i.e. PM 10, PM 2.5, soot, and N 450 (number of particles in the size range approximately 420-450 nm). No clear correlations were found between the concentrations of DBDPE or BDE-209 and any of the measures of particle concentrations, indicating that the emissions of these are not related to the major sources of emissions of soot or small particles.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 86, no 3, 264-269 p.
Brominated flame retardants, DPDPE, BDE-209, Atmospheric transport
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-76737DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.041ISI: 000300210200009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-76737DiVA: diva2:527329