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Screening for executive dysfunction before school start: Concurrent and predictive validity of the Bender test
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if the Bender test, administered to late preschoolers and evaluated with a neuropsychological scoring system ,  can identify and predict executive dysfunctions at preschool age and in late adolescence, respectively.

Participants and Methods: As part of the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project, 134 adolescents born preterm with very low birth weight (< 1500g) and 94 matched controls born at term, participated in follow-up studies at ages 5 ½ and 18 years. On both occasions, the participants were assessed with an age appropriate intelligence test and tests of executive functions (EF) .  Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test was given at age 5 ½, and scored with ABC neuropsychological system. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate how cognitive outcome at age 18 was predicted by the Bender ABC score and EF at age 5 ½, gender,  medical risk, birth weight ratio, and parental education. The validity of the Bender ABC neuropsychological score in screening for executive dysfunction was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics-analysis (ROC).

Results: Bender ABC neuropsychological scores predicted general intelligence and EF at 18 years almost as well as a more comprehensive battery, in both groups. ROC analysis showed that the Bender ABC had good diagnostic and predictive validity for identifying executive dysfunctions, with AUC-values of .84 in both cases.

Conclusion: Bender with ABC neuropsychological scoring is a promising screening instrument for identifying executive dysfunctions before school start.

National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-78941OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-78941DiVA: diva2:545836
Available from: 2012-08-21 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2012-08-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Longitudinal studies of executive and cognitive development after preterm birth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal studies of executive and cognitive development after preterm birth
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Stockholm Neonatal Project is a longitudinal population-based study of children born prematurely in 1988-93, with a very low birth weight (<1500 g), who have been followed prospectively from birth through adolescence. A matched control group was recruited at age 5 ½ years. The overall aim was to investigate long-term developmental outcome, paying particular attention to executive functions (EF) in relation to degree of prematurity, birth weight and medical risks. Study I showed a disadvantage in visuo-motor development at 5 ½ years, especially among the preterm boys. Visuo-motor skills were highly related to IQ, and also to EF. In Study II, neuropsychological profiles typical of preterm children and term born children, respectively, were identified through cluster analysis. The general level of performance corresponded well with IQ, motor functions and parental education in both groups, but preterm children had overall lower results and exhibited greater variability across domains. Study III showed that extremely preterm birth (w. 23-27) per se poses a risk for cognitive outcome at age 18, particularly for EF, and that perinatal medical complications add to the risk. By contrast, adolescents born very preterm (w. 28-31) performed just as well as term-born controls in all cognitive domains. However, adolescents born moderately preterm (w. 32-36) and small for gestational age showed general cognitive deficits. Study IV found that cognitive development was stable over time, with parental education and EF at 5 ½ years as significant predictors for cognitive outcome at age 18. Among preterm children, perinatal medical risks and being small for gestational age had a continued negative impact on cognitive development from 5 ½ to 18 years. Study V demonstrated that neuropsychological scoring of Bender drawings, developed in study I, predicted cognitive outcome in adolescence, indicating that the method  may be useful in developmental screening around school entry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 2012. 98 p.
Keyword
Preterm birth, low birth-weight, degree of prematurity, medical risks, general intelligence, executive functions, parental education, gender, development
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-78946 (URN)9789174475500 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-26, David Magnussonsalen (U31), hus 8, Frescati Hagväg 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Manuscript. Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Submitted.

Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2016-05-27Bibliographically approved

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