Particle interactions at the nanoscale: From colloidal processing to self-assembled arrays
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Nanostructured materials are the next generation of high-performance materials, harnessing the novel properties of their nanosized constituents. The controlled assembly of nanosized particles and the design of the optimal nanostructure require a detailed understanding of particle interactions and robust methods to tune them. This thesis describes innovative approaches to these challenges, relating to the determination of Hamaker constants for iron oxide nanoparticles, the packaging of nanopowders into redispersible granules, the tuning of the wetting behavior of nanocrystals and the simulation of collective magnetic properties in arrays of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.
The non-retarded Hamaker constants for iron oxides have been calculated from their optical properties based on Lifshitz theory. The results show that the magnitude of vdW interactions in non-polar solvents has previously been overestimated up to 10 times. Our calculations support the experimental observations that oleate-capped nanoparticles smaller than 15 nm in diameter can indeed form colloidally-stable dispersions in hydrocarbons. In addition, a simple procedure has been devised to remove the oleate-capping on the iron oxide nanoparticles, enabling their use in fluorometric assays for water remediation, with a sensitivity more than 100 times below the critical micelle concentration for non-ionic surfactants.
Nanosized particles are inherently more difficult to handle in the dry state than larger micron-sized powders, e.g. because of poor flowability, agglomeration and potential toxicity. The rheology of concentrated slurries of TiO2 powder was optimized by the addition of sodium polyacrylate, and spray-dried into fully redispersible micron-sized granules. The polymer was embedded into the granules, where it could serve as a re-dispersing aid.
Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been applied to the collective magnetic behavior of nanoparticle arrays of various thicknesses. The decrease in magnetic susceptibility with the thickness observed experimentally was reproduced by the simulations. Ferromagnetic couplings in the arrays are enhanced by the finite thickness, and decrease in strength with increasing thickness. The simulations indicate the formation of vortex states with increasing thickness, along with a change in their orientation, which becomes more and more isotropic as the thickness increases.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Stockholm University , 2012. , 96 p.
Colloidal processing, nanoparticles, colloidal forces, titania, iron oxide, Hamaker constant, surface modification, rheology, Monte Carlo simulations, collective properties, superparamagnetism, finite-size effects
Research subject Materials Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79129ISBN: 978-91-7447-570-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-79129DiVA: diva2:547609
2012-09-28, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Philipse, Albert, Professor
Bergström, Lennart, Professor
At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Manuscript.2012-09-062012-08-282013-09-17Bibliographically approved
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