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Tracing High-temperature Crafts: magnetometry on the Island of Gotland, Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
2012 (English)In: Archaeological Prospection, ISSN 1075-2196, E-ISSN 1099-0763, Vol. 19, no 3, 201-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gradiometer surveys have been carried at three Iron Age and early medieval sites on the island of Gotland, Sweden. Previous experiences of poorly executed magnetic surveys combined with a misconception among archaeologists that the Gotlandic sedimentary bedrock would preclude the success of any magnetic investigations on the island have, until now, prevented the extended use of the method within archaeological projects. The purpose of the present study was to test this presumption while searching for in situ buried remains of high-temperature crafts, such as metal and glass working. The location of the survey grids was guided by concentrations of previously recovered hightemperature craft finds from metal detector surveys and excavations. The results indicate that the magnetometer is a valuable tool for detecting the presence of preserved high-temperature craft structures in the Gotlandic soil. An additional result indicates that in this area the magnetometer can easily identify remains of ploughed-over Iron Age stone foundation houses and stone boundary walls. This is possible because of the prehistoric population’s preference of using glacially deposited, igneous rocks in such constructions. It can thus be concluded that the uniformly nonmagnetic character of the Gotlandic bedrock provides excellent conditions for conducting magnetic surveys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 19, no 3, 201-208 p.
Keyword [en]
Magnetometry, metal detector, Gotland, Sweden, metal work, high-temperature crafts
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeological Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79238DOI: 10.1002/arp.1428ISI: 000308472900005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-79238DiVA: diva2:548441
Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Remnant echoes of the past: Archaeological geophysical prospection in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remnant echoes of the past: Archaeological geophysical prospection in Sweden
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis has been to investigate the benefits, pitfalls and possibilities of using geophysical methods in archaeological projects. This is exemplified by surveys carried out at archaeological sites in different geographical and chronological contexts. The thesis also aims at investigating the cause for the under-use of the methods in Swedish archaeology by looking at previously conducted surveys. The methods used during these surveys have been Ground-penetrating radar (GPR), magnetometer, slingram and a kappameter. The surveys in the mountain tundra region of Lapland show that magnetic susceptibility surveys is a valuable aid in discovering heaps of fire-cracked stones and when combined with magnetometry, also hearths. GPR and magnetometer surveys within the Migration Period ringfort Sandbyborg provided the spatial layout of the fort and indicated, along with results from recent excavations and metal detections, many similarities with the ringfort Eketorp II. The non-magnetic character of the sedimentary bedrock on Öland and Gotland is suitable for magnetometer surveys and the method is also highly appropriate for the detection of the remains of high-temperature crafts. GPR surveys at St. Mary’s Dominican convent in Sigtuna produced the spatial layout of the central cloister area. The investigations also show that the geology, pedology, land use and the character of commonly occurring prehistoric remains in Sweden, in certain circumstances and in certain areas, have restricted the possibility of successfully carrying out geophysical surveys. Care must therefore be taken to choose the right instrument for the survey and to tailor the sampling density of each geophysical survey, according to the character and size of the expected archaeological remains, in order to maximize their information return. To increase the use of geophysical methods in Sweden the educational opportunities, both for surveyors and professional archaeologists, need to improve.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 2012. 116 p.
Series
Theses and papers in scientific archaeology, ISSN 1400-7835 ; 13
Keyword
Archaeological prospection, geophysical survey, Sweden, Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, Slingram, magnetic susceptibility, Neolithic, Migration period, Viking Age, Middle Ages, Öland, Gotland, Sigtuna, Lapland
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeological Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79239 (URN)978-91-7447-549-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-12, sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 C, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-09-20 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2012-09-26Bibliographically approved
2. Casting Identities in Central Seclusion: Aspects of non-ferrous metalworking and society on Gotland in the Early Medieval Period
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Casting Identities in Central Seclusion: Aspects of non-ferrous metalworking and society on Gotland in the Early Medieval Period
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and interpret late Iron Ageand Early Medieval traces of non-ferrous metalworking on the islandGotland, Sweden. Gotland was not, based on the archaeological record, anintegrated part of the common Scandinavian culture. Instead a local,endemic cultural expression had developed; a seclusion which lasted forcenturies despite the islands central position in the Baltic Sea. In thepast, key elements for the understanding of local settlement- and burialpractices as well as the local material culture were mainly recovered andreported by local farmers. A specific category of such finds – so-called‘bronze slag’ is discussed and partly reinterpreted in the first study ofthis thesis. Two further studies treat different aspects of metalworkingand metalworkers – one discusses common archaeological notions ofScandinavian workshops, production sites and metalworkers from a criticalperspective while the other mainly focuses on the Gotlandic finds frommetal-detector surveys carried out over the last 35 years. Based on whereand to which extent, both from a quantitative and a qualitative point ofview, these finds occur a hierarchical classification into four sub groupsis presented – ordinary farm sites with traces of non-ferrous metalworking,workshop sites, potential workshop sites and last, extrovert harboursettlements. A fourth study presents an attempt to evaluate the usefulnessof magnetometry in delimiting extant traces of high-temperature crafts,such as metalworking. The last study of the thesis presents an attempt touse trace elements analysis of skeletal lead in human bone to identifypotential non-ferrous metalworkers.

As the wearing of endemic Gotlandic jewellery appears to have been centralin the manifestation of the local identity it is argued that themetalworking artisans played a crucial role in defining how this identitywas signalled and displayed via the jewellery and dress-related metalobjects. It is further suggested that these artisans might have played animportant role in upholding the local economy before the advent of localminting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 2013. 175 p.
Series
Theses and papers in scientific archaeology, ISSN 1400-7835 ; 15
Keyword
Archaeometallurgy, Non-ferrous, Archaeological prospection, Metal detection, Geophysical survey, Sweden, Magnetometry, Gotland, Iron Age, Viking Period
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeological Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-95380 (URN)978-91-7447-804-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-18, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2013-11-26 Created: 2013-10-28 Last updated: 2013-11-25Bibliographically approved

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