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Reproduction and reproductive isolation in Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae)
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
(English)In: Marine Biology Research, ISSN 1745-1000, E-ISSN 1745-1019Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Recent morphological and genetic studies show that Fucus radicans is a separate species from the sympatric F. vesiculosus. Fucus radicans recently diverged from F. vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea where populations grow in mixed stands. Thus, strong reproductive barriers are expected to be in place to prevent introgression. The seasonal timing of reproduction of the two species in Estonia was shown to be different, likely forming an effective pre-zygotic reproductive barrier. In Sweden, however, no such temporal difference was found. We artificially crossed Swedish F. radicans and F. vesiculosus to identify other potential reproductive barriers. Fertilization success and survival was equally high within and between species in the artificial crossings, suggesting no early post-zygote barriers. Both species recruit new thalli both sexually and asexually, but F. radicans is generally more asexual than F. vesiculosus. By studying their reproductive efforts we found that Swedish F. radicans allocates more resources to adventitious branches than to gamete production compared to F. radicans in Estonia and F. vesiculosus in both Sweden and Estonia. This indicates that Swedish F. radicans has an asexual reproductive strategy while Estonian F. radicans and F. vesiculosus have sexual reproductive strategies.

Keyword [en]
Fucus vesiculosus, hybridization, reproductive effort, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction
National Category
Botany Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79477OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-79477DiVA: diva2:549431
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Herbivory, phenotypic variation, and reproductive barriers in fucoids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Herbivory, phenotypic variation, and reproductive barriers in fucoids
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Along the shores of the Northern hemisphere Fucus (Phaeophyceae) species are a prominent presence, providing substrate, shelter, and food for many species. Fucus evanescens, a non-indigenous species (NIS) in Sweden, and F. radicans, a recently described species that so far has only been found inside the species poor Baltic Sea, are the focus of this thesis.

Interactions with enemies (e.g. predators, herbivores, parasites) have been shown to play a role in the success of NIS. The low consumption of Fucus evanescens by the generalist gastropod Littorina littorea in Sweden was found to depend on high levels of chemical defense in the introduced population, not the failure of the herbivore to recognize F. evanescens as suitable food.

A survey of the relative abundance of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus and the most common associated fauna along the Swedish Bothnian Sea coast showed that F. radicans and F. vesiculosus are equally abundant throughout the range of F. radicans. The most common associated fauna were found to be more abundant on F. radicans compared to F. vesiculosus.  In Sweden, where F. radicans had lower levels of defense chemicals than F. vesiculosus, F. radicans was grazed more than F. vesiculosus in bioassays. This could, together with other factors, influence the range of F. radicans.

Fucus radicans and F. vesiculosus are closely related, recently separated, and growing sympatrically, therefore, possible reproductive barriers between F. radicans and F. vesiculosus were studied. In Estonia F. radicans and F. vesiculosus reproduces at different times of the year. No such clear reproductive barrier was found between the two species in Sweden where they reproduce at the same time and fertilization success and germling survival were the same for hybrids as for F. vesiculosus.

Since the high clonality of F. radicans means that the gentic diversity in F. radicans populations is low I investigated how genetic diversity translates to phenotypic diversity in nine traits. Phlorotannin levels, recovery after desiccation, and recovery after freezing showed inherited variation, while the other six traits showed no variation related to genetic diversity. Phenotypic variation in populations of F. radicans will be higher in populations with higher genetic diversity and this might be beneficial to the community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Botany, Stockholm University, 2012. 49 p.
Keyword
Non-indigenous species, Enemy Release Hypothesis, Asexual reproduction, Phlorotannins, Distribution
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79481 (URN)978-91-7447-538-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-11, föreläsningssalen, Botaniska institutionen, Lilla Frescativägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 3: Accepted.

Available from: 2012-09-19 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2012-09-06Bibliographically approved

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