Toxicity of Inorganic Aluminium in Humic Streams
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Aluminium (Al) has been recognised as a main toxic factor alongside pH in acidified water ecosystems. The toxic effect of Al has been attributed to inorganic Al (Ali), though there are few in situ studies in ambient humic waters which are the focus of this thesis.
The aim was to estimate Ali toxicity and thus also Ali concentrations in Swedish humic streams. Subsequently it is necessary to analyse Ali correctly, which was studied by modelling and method intercalibrations. The hypothesis was that the effect of Ali could be followed via physiological effects and Al accumulation, as well as by mortality. Toxicity was studied by in stream exposures of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and two salmonid prey organisms (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani) during spring flood.
The modelling of the Ali fraction was performed using monitoring data covering all of Sweden with satisfactory results. The essential variables for Ali modelling were determined; Al, DOC, pH and F, while Fe, Ca and Mg had less effect. The automated analytical procedure for Ali (with cation exchange followed by complexation with pyrocatechol violet) was modified and validated and showed to be the preferred method for laboratory analyses.
To avoid detrimental effects for brown trout Ali should be <20 µg/L and pH >5.0; mortality was high when the Ali was above 50 µg/L. The invertebrates were more sensitive, as mortalities occurred at pH <6.0 and Ali >15 µg/L for G. pulex, and at pH <5.7 and Ali >20 µg/L for B. rhodani. It is prudent to use a wide view and let the most sensitive species set the tolerance limits; a pH above 5.7-6.0 and Ali below 15-20 µg/L allows the stream ecosystems to thrive.
Today, as waters are recovering from acidification, the aim of mitigating liming is to carefully adjust dosage to avoid suboptimal water quality. The thresholds found in this thesis can be used to efficiently but carefully decrease liming, as both Ali and pH levels have to be balanced to sustain the recovering aquatic biota.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University , 2012. , 42 p.
Inorganic Al, toxicity, acidification, humic streams
Research subject Applied Environmental Science
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80651ISBN: 978-91-7447-577-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-80651DiVA: diva2:556606
2012-10-26, De Geer Salen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Rosseland, Björn-Olav, Professor
Rydin, Emil, Associate ProfessorBorg, Hans, ProfessorEriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin, Ph.D.
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