The Testing Effect as a Function of Explicit Testing Instructions and Judgments of Learning
2012 (English)In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, Vol. 59, no 5, 251-257 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
During study, people monitor their learning; the output of this monitoring is captured in so-called judgments of learning (JOLs). JOLs predict later recall better if they are made after a slight delay, instead of immediately after study (the delayed JOL effect). According to the self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) hypothesis delayed JOLs are based on covert retrieval attempts from long-term memory, and successful retrieval attempts in themselves enhance learning (the testing effect). We compared memory for 40 Swahili-Swedish paired associates after a week as a function of three different learning conditions, namely study plus (i) explicitly instructed self-testing, (ii) delayed JOLs, or (iii) less self-testing. We showed that repeated delayed JOLs lead to a memory improvement insignificantly different from a comparable condition where the participants are explicitly testing memory, and both the latter groups performed reliably better than a group that self-tested less. The results suggest that delayed JOLs improve long-term retention as efficiently as explicit memory testing and lend support to the SFP hypothesis.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 59, no 5, 251-257 p.
testing effect, judgments of learning
Research subject Psychology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80915DOI: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000150ISI: 000308602700002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-80915DiVA: diva2:558262