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The Testing Effect as a Function of Explicit Testing Instructions and Judgments of Learning
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Karolinska Institutet.
2012 (English)In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, Vol. 59, no 5, 251-257 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During study, people monitor their learning; the output of this monitoring is captured in so-called judgments of learning (JOLs). JOLs predict later recall better if they are made after a slight delay, instead of immediately after study (the delayed JOL effect). According to the self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) hypothesis delayed JOLs are based on covert retrieval attempts from long-term memory, and successful retrieval attempts in themselves enhance learning (the testing effect). We compared memory for 40 Swahili-Swedish paired associates after a week as a function of three different learning conditions, namely study plus (i) explicitly instructed self-testing, (ii) delayed JOLs, or (iii) less self-testing. We showed that repeated delayed JOLs lead to a memory improvement insignificantly different from a comparable condition where the participants are explicitly testing memory, and both the latter groups performed reliably better than a group that self-tested less. The results suggest that delayed JOLs improve long-term retention as efficiently as explicit memory testing and lend support to the SFP hypothesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 59, no 5, 251-257 p.
Keyword [en]
testing effect, judgments of learning
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Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-80915DOI: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000150ISI: 000308602700002OAI: diva2:558262
Available from: 2012-10-02 Created: 2012-10-02 Last updated: 2012-10-25Bibliographically approved

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Jönsson, Fredrik U.Hedner, Margareta
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